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Flight Plans

Flight Planning

IFR and VFR Flight Plans Flight plans are documents filed by pilots, or a Flight Dispatcher with the local Civil Aviation Authority (e.g., FAA in the United States), prior to departure. [Figure 2-2] They generally include basic information, such as departure and arrival points, estimated time en route, alternate airports in case of bad weather, […]

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Airways

Flight Planning

Types and Use of Airways Airways are corridors established by a national government within its airspace to facilitate the navigation and control of air traffic under IFR conditions. Usually, an airway is 10 statute miles wide and follows a route over the ground defined by radio NAVAIDs. Generally, there are many different airways within a […]

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Flight Planning

Flight Planning

In the air, there is little time for lengthy processes of reasoning. Decisions must be made quickly and accurately; therefore, careful planning is essential to any flight. A smooth, successful flight requires a careful step-by-step plan that can be followed from takeoff to landing. Route Determination When planning a route to be flown, many factors […]

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Flight Planning Publications and Charts

Flight Planning

Flight Information Publications (FLIP) Complete aeronautical information concerning air traffic systems is published in FLIP. Published by the National Geo-Spatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), FLIP are divided into three phases of flight: planning, en route operations, and terminal operations. The en route and terminal phase publications have been divided into the following areas: CONUS; Alaska; Canada […]

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Air Traffic Control (ATC) System

Flight Planning

Most nations of the world today have established airspace, air traffic units, and air traffic services to promote a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of traffic. Furthermore, in the interest of standardization, many nations are establishing systems according to the standards and recommended practices adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Navigators must understand […]

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Aeronautical Charts

Maps and Charts

An aeronautical chart is a pictorial representation of a portion of the earth’s surface upon which lines and symbols in a variety of colors represent features or details seen on the earth’s surface. In addition to ground image, many additional symbols and notes are added to indicate navigational aids (NAVAID) and data necessary for air […]

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Charts and Projections (Part Three)

Maps and Charts

Conic Projections There are two classes of conic projections. The first is a simple conic projection constructed by placing the apex of the cone over some part of the earth (usually the pole) with the cone tangent to a parallel called the standard parallel and projecting the graticule of the reduced earth onto the cone. […]

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Charts and Projections (Part Two)

Maps and Charts

Gnomonic Projection All gnomonic projections are direct perspective projections. Since the plane of every great circle cuts through the center of the sphere, the point of projection is in the plane of every great circle. This property then becomes the most important and useful characteristic of the gnomonic projection. Each and every great circle is […]

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Charts and Projections (Part One)

Maps and Charts

There are several basic terms and ideas relative to charts and projections that the reader should be familiar with before discussing the various projections used in the creation of aeronautical charts. A map or chart is a small scale representation on a plane of the surface of the earth or some portion of it. The […]

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