# weight and balance

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part Six) – Weight Addition or Removal

In many instances, the weight and balance of the aircraft will be changed by the addition or removal of weight. When this happens, a new CG must be calculated and checked against the limitations to see if the location is acceptable. This type of weight and balance problem is commonly encountered when the aircraft burns fuel in flight, thereby reducing the weight located at the fuel tanks. Most small aircraft are designed with the fuel tanks positioned close to the CG; therefore, the consumption of fuel does not affect the CG to any great extent.

The addition or removal of cargo presents a CG change problem that must be calculated before flight. The problem may always be solved by calculations involving total moments. A typical problem may involve the calculation of a new CG for an aircraft which, when loaded and ready for flight, receives some additional cargo or passengers just before departure time.

In the previous examples, the CG is either added or subtracted from the old CG. Deciding which to accomplish is best handled by mentally calculating which way the CG will shift for the particular weight change. If the CG is shifting aft, the CG is added to the old CG; if the CG is shifting forward, the CG is subtracted from the old CG.

Learn more about Aircraft Weight and Balance with the FAA Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook. Weight and balance is one of the most important factors affecting safety of flight. An overweight aircraft, or one whose center of gravity is outside the allowable limits, is inefficient and dangerous to fly.

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part Five) – Weight Shifting

When weight is shifted from one location to another, the total weight of the aircraft is unchanged. The total moments, however, do change in relation and proportion to the direction and distance the weight is moved. When weight is moved forward, the total moments decrease; when weight is moved aft, total moments increase. The moment […]

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part Four) – Computations

Computations With a Negative Arm Figure 9-10 is a sample of weight and balance computation using an airplane with a negative arm. It is important to remember that a positive times a negative equals a negative, and a negative would be subtracted from the total moments. Computations With Zero Fuel Weight Figure 9-11 is a […]

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part Three) Table Method

The table method applies the same principles as the computational and graph methods. The information and limitations are contained in tables provided by the manufacturer. Figure 9-9 is an example of a table and a weight and balance calculation based on that table. In this problem, the total weight of 2,799 pounds and moment of […]

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part Two) Graph Method

Another method for determining the loaded weight and CG is the use of graphs provided by the manufacturers. To simplify calculations, the moment may sometimes be divided by 100, 1,000, or 10,000. [Figures 9-6, 9-7, and 9-8] Front seat occupants………………………………340 pounds Rear seat occupants ………………………………..300 pounds Fuel ………………………………………………………..40 gallons Baggage area 1 ………………………………………..20 pounds The […]

## Determining Loaded Weight and CG (Part One) Computational Method

The following is an example of the computational method involving the application of basic math functions. Aircraft Allowances: Maximum gross weight…………………. 3,400 pounds CG range……………………………………… 78–86 inches Given: Weight of front seat occupants…………. 340 pounds Weight of rear seat occupants………….. 350 pounds Fuel………………………………………………….. 75 gallons Weight of baggage in area 1………………..80 pounds 1. List the […]

## Weight and Balance Restrictions

An aircraft’s weight and balance restrictions should be closely followed. The loading conditions and empty weight of a particular aircraft may differ from that found in the AFM/POH because modifications or equipment changes may have been made. Sample loading problems in the AFM/POH are intended for guidance only; therefore, each aircraft must be treated separately. […]