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Navigation

Charting the Course (Part One)

Navigation

Once the weather has been checked and some preliminary planning done, it is time to chart the course and determine the data needed to accomplish the flight. The following sections provide a logical sequence to follow in charting the course, filling out a flight log, and filing a flight plan. In the following example, a […]

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Flight Planning

Navigation

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91 states, in part, that before beginning a flight, the pilot in command (PIC) of an aircraft shall become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. For flights not in the vicinity of an airport, this must include information on available current weather […]

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Dead Reckoning (Part Two)

Navigation

Please read Dead Reckoning (Part One) prior to reading this post. Now, on a plain sheet of paper draw a vertical line representing north to south. (The various steps are shown in Figure 15-21.) Figure 15-21. Steps in drawing the wind triangle. Step 1 Place the protractor with the base resting on the vertical line […]

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Dead Reckoning (Part One)

Navigation

Dead reckoning is navigation solely by means of computations based on time, airspeed, distance, and direction. The products derived from these variables, when adjusted by wind speed and velocity, are heading and GS. The predicted heading takes the aircraft along the intended path and the GS establishes the time to arrive at each checkpoint and […]

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Pilotage

Navigation

Pilotage is navigation by reference to landmarks or checkpoints. It is a method of navigation that can be used on any course that has adequate checkpoints, but it is more commonly used in conjunction with dead reckoning and VFR radio navigation. The checkpoints selected should be prominent features common to the area of the flight. […]

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Basic Calculations for Navigation

Navigation

Before a cross-country flight, a pilot should make common calculations for time, speed, and distance, and the amount of fuel required. Converting Minutes to Equivalent Hours Frequently, it is necessary to convert minutes into equivalent hours when solving speed, time, and distance problems. To convert minutes to hours, divide by 60 (60 minutes = 1 […]

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Effect of Wind on Navigation (Part Two)

Navigation

Assuming no correction is made for wind effect, if an aircraft is heading eastward at 120 knots, and the air mass moving southward at 20 knots, the aircraft at the end of 1 hour is almost 120 miles east of its point of departure because of its progress through the air. It is 20 miles […]

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Effect of Wind on Navigation (Part One)

Navigation

The preceding discussion explained how to measure a true course on the aeronautical chart and how to make corrections for variation and deviation, but one important factor has not been considered—wind. As discussed in the study of the atmosphere, wind is a mass of air moving over the surface of the Earth in a definite […]

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Latitude and Longitude (Meridians and Parallels) – Deviation

Navigation

Determining the magnetic heading is an intermediate step necessary to obtain the correct compass heading for the flight. To determine compass heading, a correction for deviation must be made. Because of magnetic influences within an aircraft such as electrical circuits, radio, lights, tools, engine, and magnetized metal parts, the compass needle is frequently deflected from […]

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