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Instrument Rating

Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) (Part Two)

Navigation Systems

VOR Operational Errors Typical pilot-induced errors include: Careless tuning and identification of station. Failure to check receiver for accuracy/sensitivity. Turning in the wrong direction during an orientation. This error is common until visualizing position rather than heading. Failure to check the ambiguity (TO/FROM) indicator, particularly during course reversals, resulting in reverse sensing and corrections in […]

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Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) (Part One)

Navigation Systems

VOR is the primary navigational aid (NAVAID) used by civil aviation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The VOR ground station is oriented to magnetic north and transmits azimuth information to the aircraft, providing 360 courses TO or FROM the VOR station. When DME is installed with the VOR, it is referred to as a […]

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Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) (Part Two)

Navigation Systems

Tracking Tracking uses a heading that will maintain the desired track to or from the station regardless of crosswind conditions. Interpretation of the heading indicator and needle is done to maintain a constant MB to or from the station. To track inbound, turn to the heading that will produce a zero RB. Maintain this heading […]

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Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) (Part One)

Navigation Systems

The nondirectional radio beacon (NDB) is a ground-based radio transmitter that transmits radio energy in all directions. The ADF, when used with an NDB, determines the bearing from the aircraft to the transmitting station. The indicator may be mounted in a separate instrument in the aircraft panel. [Figure 7-2] The ADF needle points to the […]

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Basic Radio Principles

Navigation Systems

A radio wave is an electromagnetic (EM) wave with frequency characteristics that make it useful. The wave will travel long distances through space (in or out of the atmosphere) without losing too much strength. An antenna is used to convert electric current into a radio wave so it can travel through space to the receiving […]

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Changing Technology

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Advances in technology have brought about changes in the instrumentation found in all types of aircraft, including helicopters. Electronic displays commonly referred to as “glass cockpits” are becoming more common. Primary flight displays (PFDs) and multi-function displays (MFDs) are changing not only what information is available to a pilot but also how that information is […]

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Instrument Takeoff

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

The procedures and techniques described here should be modified as necessary to conform to those set forth in the operating instructions for the particular helicopter being flown. During training, instrument takeoffs should not be attempted except when receiving instruction from an appropriately certificated, proficient flight instructor pilot. Adjust the miniature aircraft in the attitude indicator, […]

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Emergencies

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Emergencies during instrument flight are handled similarly to those occurring during VFR flight. A thorough knowledge of the helicopter and its systems, as well as good aeronautical knowledge and judgment, is the best preparation for emergency situations. Safe operations begin with preflight planning and a thorough preflight inspection. Plan a route of flight to include […]

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Unusual Attitudes

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Any maneuver not required for normal helicopter instrument flight is an unusual attitude and may be caused by any one or combination of factors such as turbulence, disorientation, instrument failure, confusion, preoccupation with flight deck duties, carelessness in cross-checking, errors in instrument interpretation, or lack of proficiency in aircraft control. Due to the instability characteristics […]

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