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Instrument Rating

Terminal Procedures Publications

The National Airspace System

While the en route charts provide the information necessary to safely transit broad regions of airspace, the United States Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP) enables pilots to guide their aircraft in the airport area. Whether departing or arriving, these procedures exist to make the controllers’ and pilots’ jobs safer and more efficient. Available in booklets by […]

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New Technologies

The National Airspace System

Technological advances have made multifunction displays and moving maps more common in newer aircraft. Even older aircraft are being retrofitted to include “glass” in the flight deck. [Figure 8-6] Moving maps improve pilot situational awareness by providing a picture of aircraft location in relation to NAVAIDS, waypoints, airspace, terrain, and hazardous weather. GPS systems can be […]

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IFR En Route Charts

The National Airspace System

The objective of IFR en route flight is to navigate within the lateral limits of a designated airway at an altitude consistent with the ATC clearance. Your ability to fl y instruments safely and competently in the system is greatly enhanced by understanding the vast array of data available to the pilot on instrument charts. […]

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Introduction to the National Airspace System (Part Two)

The National Airspace System

Federal Airways The primary means for routing aircraft operating under IFR is the federal airways system. Each federal airway is based on a centerline that extends from one NAVAID/waypoint/fix/intersection to another NAVAID/ waypoint/fix/intersection specified for that airway. A federal airway includes the airspace within parallel boundary lines four NM to each side of the centerline. […]

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Introduction to the National Airspace System (Part One)

The National Airspace System

The National Airspace System (NAS) is the network of United States airspace: air navigation facilities, equipment, services, airports or landing areas, aeronautical charts, information/services, rules, regulations, procedures, technical information, manpower, and material. Included are system components shared jointly with the military. The system’s present configuration is a reflection of the technological advances concerning the speed […]

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Radar Navigation (Ground Based)

Navigation Systems

Radar works by transmitting a pulse of RF energy in a specific direction. The return of the echo or bounce of that pulse from a target is precisely timed. From this, the distance traveled by the pulse and its echo is determined and displayed on a radar screen in such a manner that the distance […]

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Head-Up Display (HUD)

Navigation Systems

The HUD is a display system that provides a projection of navigation and air data (airspeed in relation to approach reference speed, altitude, left/right and up/down GS) on a transparent screen between the pilot and the windshield. Other information may be displayed, including a runway target in relation to the nose of the aircraft. This […]

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Flight Management Systems (FMS)

Navigation Systems

A flight management system (FMS) is not a navigation system in itself. Rather, it is a system that automates the tasks of managing the onboard navigation systems. FMS may perform other onboard management tasks, but this discussion is limited to its navigation function. FMS is an interface between flight crews and flight-deck systems. FMS can […]

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Required Navigation Performance

Navigation Systems

RNP is a navigation system that provides a specified level of accuracy defined by a lateral area of confined airspace in which an RNP-certified aircraft operates. The continuing growth of aviation places increasing demands on airspace capacity and emphasizes the need for the best use of the available airspace. These factors, along with the accuracy […]

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