Pilot and student pilot community. Share your pilot lessons or aviation stories.



Instrument Rating

Turns – Turns to Predetermined Headings

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

Turning the aircraft is one of the most basic maneuvers that a pilot learns during initial flight training. Learning to control the aircraft, maintaining coordination, and smoothly rolling out on a desired heading are all keys to proficient attitude instrument flying. EFDs allow the pilot to better utilize all instrumentation during all phases of attitude […]

Read the full article →

Turns – Standard Rate Turns – Common Errors

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

1. One common error associated with standard rate turns is due to pilot inability to hold the appropriate bank angle that equates to a standard rate. The primary bank instrument during the turn is the turn rate indicator; however, the bank angle varies slightly. With an aggressive cross-check, a pilot should be able to minimize errors […]

Read the full article →

Turns – Standard Rate Turns – Establishing A Standard Rate Turn

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

In order to initiate a standard rate turn, approximate the bank angle and then establish that bank angle on the attitude indicator. A rule of thumb to determine the approximate angle of bank is to use 15 percent of the true airspeed. A simple way to determine this amount is to divide the airspeed by […]

Read the full article →

Turns – Standard Rate Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

The previous sections have addressed flying straight-and-level as well as climbs and descents. However, attitude instrument flying is not accomplished solely by flying in a straight line. At some point, the aircraft needs to be turned to maneuver along victor airways, global positioning system (GPS) courses, and instrument approaches. The key to instrument flying is […]

Read the full article →

Common Errors in Straight Climbs and Descents

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

Climbing and descending errors usually result from but are not limited to the following errors: 1. Overcontrolling pitch on beginning the climb. Aircraft familiarization is the key to achieving precise attitude instrument flying. Until the pilot becomes familiar with the pitch attitudes associated with specific airspeeds, the pilot must make corrections to the initial pitch settings. Changes do not produce instantaneous […]

Read the full article →

Straight Climbs and Descents – Descents

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

Descending flight can be accomplished at various airspeeds and pitch attitudes by reducing power, lowering the nose to a pitch attitude lower than the level flight attitude, or adding drag. Once any of these changes have been made, the airspeed eventually stabilizes During this transitional phase, the only instrument that displays an accurate indication of […]

Read the full article →

Straight Climbs and Descents – Entry – Leveling Off

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

Leveling off from a climb requires a reduction in the pitch prior to reaching the desired altitude. If no change in pitch is made until reaching the desired altitude, the momentum of the aircraft causes the aircraft to continue past the desired altitude throughout the transition to a level pitch attitude. The amount of lead […]

Read the full article →

Straight Climbs and Descents – Entry – Constant Rate Climbs

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

Constant rate climbs are very similar to the constant airspeed climbs in the way the entry is made. As power is added, smoothly apply elevator pressure to raise the yellow chevron to the desired pitch attitude that equates to the desired vertical speed rate. The primary instrument for pitch during the initial portion of the maneuver […]

Read the full article →

Straight Climbs and Descents – Entry – Constant Airspeed Climb From Established Airspeed

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

In order to enter a constant airspeed climb, first complete the airspeed reduction from cruise airspeed to climb airspeed. Maintain straight-and-level flight as the airspeed is reduced. The entry to the climb is similar to the entry from cruise airspeed with the exception that the power must be increased when the pitch attitude is raised. […]

Read the full article →