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Instrument Rating

Turns (Part Two)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Change of Airspeed in Turns Changing airspeed in turns is an effective maneuver for increasing proficiency in all three basic instrument skills. Since the maneuver involves simultaneous changes in all components of control, proper execution requires a rapid cross-check and interpretation, as well as smooth control. Proficiency in the maneuver also contributes to confidence in […]

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Turns (Part One)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Turns made by reference to the flight instruments should be made at a precise rate. Turns described in this chapter are those not exceeding a standard rate of 3° per second as indicated on the turn-and-slip indicator. True airspeed determines the angle of bank necessary to maintain a standard rate turn. A rule of thumb […]

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Straight Descents (Constant Airspeed and Constant Rate)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

A descent may be performed at any normal airspeed the helicopter can attain, but the airspeed must be determined prior to entry. The technique is determined by the type of descent, a constant airspeed or a constant rate. Entry If airspeed is higher than descending airspeed, and a constant airspeed descent is desired, reduce power […]

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Straight Climbs (Constant Airspeed and Constant Rate)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

For any power setting and load condition, there is only one airspeed that gives the most efficient rate of climb. To determine this, consult the climb data for the type of helicopter being fl own. The technique varies according to the airspeed on entry and whether a constant airspeed or constant rate climb is made. […]

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Straight-and-Level Flight (Part Two)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Bank Control The bank attitude of a helicopter is the angular relation of its lateral axis to the natural horizon. To maintain a straight course in visual flight, keep the lateral axis of the helicopter level with the natural horizon. Assuming the helicopter is in coordinated flight, any deviation from a laterally level attitude produces […]

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Straight-and-Level Flight (Part One)

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Straight-and-level unaccelerated flight consists of maintaining the desired altitude, heading, airspeed, and pedal trim. Pitch Control The pitch attitude of a helicopter is the angular relation of its longitudinal axis to the natural horizon. If available, the attitude indicator is used to establish the desired pitch attitude. In level flight, pitch attitude varies with airspeed […]

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Instrument Flight – Aircraft Control

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

Controlling a helicopter is the result of accurately interpreting the flight instruments and translating these readings into correct control responses. Aircraft control involves adjustment to pitch, bank, power, and trim in order to achieve a desired flight path. Pitch attitude control is controlling the movement of the helicopter about its lateral axis. After interpreting the […]

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Instrument Flight

Helicopter Attitude Instrument Flying

To achieve smooth, positive control of the helicopter during instrument flight, three fundamental skills must be developed. They are instrument cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control. Instrument Cross-Check Cross-checking, sometimes referred to as scanning, is the continuous and logical observation of instruments for attitude and performance information. In attitude instrument flying, an attitude is maintained […]

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Straight Climbs and Descents – Leveling Off

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Electronic Flight Display

When leveling off from a descent with the intention of returning to cruise airspeed, first start by increasing the power to cruise prior to increasing the pitch back toward the level flight attitude. A technique used to determine how soon to start the level off is to lead the level off by an altitude corresponding […]

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