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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers – Analog Instrumentation

Bank Control (Part Two) Heading Indicator

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The bank attitude of an aircraft in coordinated flight is shown indirectly on the heading indicator, since banking results in a turn and change in heading. Assuming the same airspeed in both instances, a rapid movement of the heading indicator (azimuth card in a directional gyro) indicates a large angle of bank, whereas slow movement […]

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Bank Control (Part One) Attitude Indicator

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The bank attitude of an airplane is the angle between the airplane’s wings and the natural horizon. To maintain a straight-and-level flightpath, the wings of the airplane are kept level with the horizon (assuming the airplane is in coordinated flight). The instruments used for bank control are the attitude indicator, the heading indicator, and the […]

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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation – Straight-and-Level Flight – Pitch Control (Part Four) Airspeed Indicator (ASI)

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The ASI presents an indirect indication of the pitch attitude. In non-turbulent conditions with a constant power setting and pitch attitude, airspeed remains constant. [Figure 7-13] As the pitch attitude lowers, airspeed increases, and the nose should be raised. [Figure 7-14] As the pitch attitude rises, airspeed decreases, and the nose should be lowered. [Figure […]

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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation – Straight-and-Level Flight – Pitch Control (Part Three) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The VSI, like the altimeter, gives an indirect indication of pitch attitude and is both a trend and a rate instrument. As a trend instrument, it shows immediately the initial vertical movement of the airplane, which disregarding turbulence can be considered a reflection of pitch change. To maintain level flight, use the VSI in conjunction […]

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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation – Straight-and-Level Flight – Pitch Control (Part Two) Altimeter

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Altimeter At constant power, any deviation from level flight (except in turbulent air) is the result of a pitch change. Therefore, the altimeter gives an indirect indication of the pitch attitude in level flight, assuming constant power. Since the altitude should remain constant when the airplane is in level flight, any deviation from the desired altitude […]

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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers Using Analog Instrumentation – Straight-and-Level Flight – Pitch Control (Part One) Attitude Indicator

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Pitch Control The pitch attitude of an airplane is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the actual horizon. In level flight, the pitch attitude varies with airspeed and load. For training purposes, the latter factor can normally be disregarded in small airplanes. At a constant airspeed, there is only one specific pitch […]

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