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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers – Analog Instrumentation

Straight Climbs (Part Two) Leveling Off

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

To level off from a climb and maintain an altitude, it is necessary to start the level off before reaching the desired altitude. The amount of lead varies with rate of climb and pilot technique. If the airplane is climbing at 1,000 fpm, it continues to climb at a decreasing rate throughout the transition to level flight. An effective practice […]

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Straight Climbs (Part One) Entry

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Climbs For a given power setting and load condition, there is only one attitude that gives the most efficient rate of climb. The airspeed and climb power setting that determines this climb attitude are given in the performance data found in the POH/AFM. Details of the technique for entering a climb vary according to airspeed on entry and the […]

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Common Errors in Straight-and-Level Flight

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Pitch Pitch errors usually result from the following faults: Improper adjustment of the attitude indicator’s miniature aircraft to the wings-level attitude. Following the initial level off from a climb, check the attitude indicator and make any necessary adjustment in the miniature aircraft for level flight indication at normal cruise airspeed. Insufficient cross-check and interpretation of pitch instruments. For example, the airspeed […]

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Trim Technique

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Proper trim technique is essential for smooth and precise aircraft control during all phases of flight. By relieving all control pressures, it is much easier to hold a given attitude constant and devote more attention to other flight deck duties. An aircraft is trimmed by applying control pressures to establish a desired attitude, then adjusting the trim so the aircraft […]

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Power Control (Part Three) Airspeed Changes in Straight-and-Level Flight

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Practice of airspeed changes in straight-and-level flight provides an excellent means of developing increased proficiency in all three basic instrument skills and brings out some common errors to be expected during training in straight-and-level flight. Having learned to control the airplane in a clean configuration (minimum drag conditions), increase proficiency in crosscheck and control by practicing speed changes while extending or retracting […]

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Power Control (Part Two) Power Settings

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Power control and airspeed changes are much easier when approximate power settings necessary to maintain various airspeeds in straight-and-level flight are known in advance. However, to change airspeed by any appreciable amount, the common procedure is to underpower or overpower on initial power changes to accelerate the rate of airspeed change. (For small speed changes, or in airplanes that decelerate or accelerate […]

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Power Control (Part One)

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Power produces thrust which, with the appropriate angle of attack of the wing, overcomes the forces of gravity, drag, and inertia to determine airplane performance. Power control must be related to its effect on altitude and airspeed, since any change in power setting results in a change in the airspeed or the altitude of the airplane. At any given airspeed, […]

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Bank Control (Part Four) Turn-and-Slip Indicator (Needle and Ball)

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Unlike the turn coordinator that provides three indications (roll, turn, and trim), the turn-and-slip indicator provides two: turn-rate and trim. Although the turn-and-slip indicator needle provides an indication of turn only, it provides an indirect indication of aircraft attitude when used with roll indicators, such as a heading indicator or magnetic compass. As with the […]

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Bank Control (Part Three) Turn Coordinator

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator gives an indirect indication of the bank attitude of the airplane. When the miniature aircraft is level, the airplane is in straight flight. When the miniature airplane is aligned with one of the alignment marks and the aircraft is rolling to the left or right the indication represents […]

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