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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers – Analog Instrumentation

Turns (Part Six) Change of Airspeed During Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Changing airspeed during turns is an effective maneuver for increasing proficiency in all three basic instrument skills. Since the maneuver involves simultaneous changes in all components of control, proper execution requires rapid cross-check and interpretation as well as smooth control. Proficiency in the maneuver also contributes to confidence in the instruments during attitude and power changes involved in more complex maneuvers. Pitch […]

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Turns (Part Five) Steep Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

For purposes of instrument flight training in conventional airplanes, any turn greater than a standard rate is considered steep. [Figure 7-36] The exact angle of bank at which a normal turn becomes steep is unimportant. What is important is learning to control the airplane with bank attitudes in excess of those normally used on instruments. Practicing steep turns will not only […]

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Turns (Part Four) Compass Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

In most small airplanes, the magnetic compass is the only direction-indicating instrument independent of other airplane instruments and power sources. Because of its operating characteristics, called compass errors, pilots are prone to use it only as a reference for setting the heading indicator, but knowledge of magnetic compass characteristics permits full use of the instrument to turn the airplane to correct […]

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Turns (Part Three) Timed Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

A timed turn is a turn in which the clock and the turn coordinator are used to change heading by a specific number of degrees in a given time. For example, in a standard rate turn (3 degrees per second), an airplane turns 45° in 15 seconds; in a half standard rate turn, the airplane turns 45° in 30 […]

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Turns (Part Two) Turns to Predetermined Headings

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

As long as an airplane is in a coordinated bank, it continues to turn. Thus, the roll-out to a desired heading must be started before the heading is reached. The amount of lead varies with the relationship between the rate of turn, angle of bank, and rate of recovery. For small heading changes, use a bank angle that does not […]

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Turns (Part One) Standard Rate Turns

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

A standard rate turn is one in which the pilot will do a complete 360° circle in 2 minutes or 3 degrees per second. A standard rate turn, although always 3 degrees per second, requires higher angles of bank as airspeed increases. To enter a standard rate level turn, apply coordinated aileron and rudder pressures in the desired direction of […]

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Common Errors in Straight Climbs and Descents

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Common errors result from the following faults: Overcontrolling pitch on climb entry. Until the pitch attitudes related to specific power settings used in climbs and descents are known, larger than necessary pitch adjustments are made. One of the most difficult habits to acquire during instrument training is to restrain the impulse to disturb a flight attitude until the result is known. […]

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Straight Descents (Part Two) Leveling Off

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

The level off from a descent must be started before reaching the desired altitude. The amount of lead depends upon the rate of descent and control technique. With too little lead, the airplane tends to overshoot the selected altitude unless technique is rapid. Assuming a 500 fpm rate of descent, lead the altitude by 100–150 feet for a level off […]

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Straight Descents (Part One) Entry

Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

Descents A descent can be made at a variety of airspeeds and attitudes by reducing power, adding drag, and lowering the nose to a predetermined attitude. The airspeed eventually stabilizes at a constant value. Meanwhile, the only flight instrument providing a positive attitude reference is the attitude indicator. Without the attitude indicator (such as during a partial panel descent), the ASI, […]

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