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Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers – Analog Instrumentation

80/260 Procedure Turn

  1. Start timing at point A (usually identified on approach procedures by a fix). For example, fly outbound on a heading of 360° for 2 minutes. [Figure 7-43]
  2. At B, enter a left standard rate turn of 80° to a heading of 280°.
  3. At the completion of the 80° turn to 280° (Point C), immediately turn right 260°, rolling-out on a heading of 180° (Point D) and also the reciprocal of the entry heading.
Figure 7-43. 80/260 procedure turn (entire pattern in level flight).

Figure 7-43. 80/260 procedure turn (entire pattern in level flight).

Teardrop Patterns

There are three typical teardrop procedure turns. A 30°, 20°, and a 10° teardrop pattern. The below steps indicate actions for all three starting on a heading of 360°. [Figure 7-44]

1. At point B (after stabilizing on the outbound course) turn left:

  • 30° to a heading of 330° and time for 1 minute
  • 20° to a heading of 340° and time for 2 minutes
  • 10° to a heading of 350° and time for 3 minutes

2. After the appropriate time above (Point C), make a standard rate turn to the right for:

  • 30° teardrop—210° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)
  • 20° teardrop—200° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)
  • 10° teardrop—190° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)

By using the different teardrop patterns, a pilot is afforded the ability to manage time more efficiently. For instance, a 10° pattern for 3 minutes provides about three times the distance (and time) than a 30° pattern. Pattern selection should be based upon an individual assessment of the procedure turn requirements to include wind, complexity, the individual preparedness, etc.

Figure 7-44. Teardrop pattern (entire pattern in level flight).

Figure 7-44. Teardrop pattern (entire pattern in level flight).

Circling Approach Patterns

Pattern I

  1. At A, start timing for 2 minutes from A to B; reduce airspeed to approach speed. [Figure 7-45]
  2. At B, make a standard rate turn to the left for 45°.
  3. At the completion of the turn, time for 45 seconds to C.
  4. At C, turn to the original heading; fly 1 minute to D, lowering the landing gear and flaps.
  5. At D, turn right 180°, rolling-out at E on the reciprocal of the entry heading.
  6. At E, enter a 500 fpm rate descent. At the end of a 500 foot descent, enter a straight constant-airspeed climb, retracting gear and flaps.
Figure 7-45. Circling approach pattern I (imaginary runway).

Figure 7-45. Circling approach pattern I (imaginary runway).

Pattern II

Steps:

  1. At A, start timing for 2 minutes from A to B; reduce airspeed to approach speed. [Figure 7-46]
  2. At B, make a standard rate turn to the left for 45°.
  3. At the completion of the turn, time for 1 minute to C.
  4. At C, turn right for 180° to D; fly for 1-1/2 minutes to E, lowering the landing gear and flaps.
  5. At E, turn right for 180°, rolling-out at F.
  6. At F, enter a 500 fpm rate descent. At the end of a 500 foot descent, enter a straight constant-airspeed climb, retracting gear and flaps.
Figure 7-46. Circling approach pattern II (imaginary runway).

Figure 7-46. Circling approach pattern II (imaginary runway).

 

Basic Instrument Flight Patterns (Part One)

Flight patterns are basic maneuvers, flown by sole reference to the instruments rather than outside visual clues, for the purpose of practicing basic attitude flying. The patterns simulate maneuvers encountered on instrument flights, such as holding patterns, procedure turns, and approaches. After attaining a reasonable degree of proficiency in basic maneuvers, apply these skills to the various combinations of individual maneuvers. The […]

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Instrument Takeoff (Part Two) Common Errors in Instrument Takeoffs

Common errors during the instrument takeoff include the following: 1. Failure to perform an adequate flight deck check before the takeoff. Pilots have attempted instrument takeoffs with inoperative airspeed indicators (pitot tube obstructed), gyros caged, controls locked, and numerous other oversights due to haste or carelessness. 2. Improper alignment on the runway. This may result from improper brake application, allowing the airplane […]

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Instrument Takeoff (Part One)

Competency in instrument takeoffs will provide the proficiency and confidence necessary for use of flight instruments during departures under conditions of low visibility, rain, low ceilings, or disorientation at night. A sudden rapid transition from “visual” to “instrument” flight can result in serious disorientation and control problems. Instrument takeoff techniques vary with different types of airplanes, but the method described below […]

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Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries (Part Three) Common Errors in Unusual Attitudes

Common errors associated with unusual attitudes include the following faults: 1. Failure to keep the airplane properly trimmed. A flight deck interruption when holding pressures can easily lead to inadvertent entry into unusual attitudes. 2 Disorganized flight deck. Hunting for charts, logs, computers, etc., can seriously distract attention from the instruments. 3. Slow cross-check and fixations. The impulse is to stop […]

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Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries (Part Two)

Recovery from Unusual Attitudes In moderate unusual attitudes, the pilot can normally reorient by establishing a level flight indication on the attitude indicator. However, the pilot should not depend on this instrument if the attitude indicator is the spillable type, because its upset limits may have been exceeded or it may have become inoperative due to mechanical malfunction. If it is […]

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Unusual Attitudes and Recoveries (Part One)

An unusual attitude is an airplane attitude not normally required for instrument flight. Unusual attitudes may result from a number of conditions, such as turbulence, disorientation, instrument failure, confusion, preoccupation with flight deck duties, carelessness in cross-checking, errors in instrument interpretation, or lack of proficiency in aircraft control. Since unusual attitudes are not intentional maneuvers during instrument flight, except in training, they are […]

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Approach to Stall

Practicing approach to stall recoveries in various airplane configurations should build confidence in a pilot’s ability to control the airplane in unexpected situations. Approach to stall should be practiced from straight flight and from shallow banks. The objective is to practice recognition and recovery from the approach to a stall. Prior to stall recovery practice, select a safe altitude above the […]

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Turns (Part Seven) Common Errors in Turns

Pitch Pitch errors result from the following faults: 1. Preoccupation with bank control during turn entry and recovery. If 5 seconds are required to roll into a turn, check the pitch instruments as bank pressures are initiated. If bank control pressure and rate of bank change are consistent, a sense of the time required for an attitude change is developed. […]

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