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Aerodynamic Factors

Aerodynamic Drag Curves

Aerodynamic Factors

When induced drag and parasite drag are plotted on a graph, the total drag on the aircraft appears in the form of a “drag curve.” Graph A of Figure 2-8 shows a curve based on thrust versus drag, which is primarily used for jet aircraft. Graph B of Figure 2-8 is based on power versus drag, and it is […]

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Aerodynamic Lift

Aerodynamic Factors

Lift always acts in a direction perpendicular to the relative wind and to the lateral axis of the aircraft. The fact that lift is referenced to the wing, not to the Earth’s surface, is the source of many errors in learning flight control. Lift is not always “up.” Its direction relative to the Earth’s surface changes as the pilot maneuvers […]

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Layers of the Atmosphere

Aerodynamic Factors

There are several layers to the atmosphere with the troposphere being closest to the Earth’s surface extending to about 60,000 feet. Following is the stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and finally the exosphere. The tropopause is the thin layer between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It varies in both thickness and altitude but is generally defined where the standard lapse (generally accepted at […]

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Review of Basic Aerodynamics – Newtonian Law

Aerodynamic Factors

Newton’s First Law, the Law of Inertia Newton’s First Law of Motion is the Law of Inertia. It states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion, at the same speed and in the same direction until affected by an outside force. The force with which a body offers […]

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Review of Basic Aerodynamics – The Four Forces

Aerodynamic Factors

The instrument pilot must understand the relationship and differences between several factors that affect the performance of an aircraft in flight. Also, it is crucial to understand how the aircraft reacts to various control and power changes, because the environment in which instrument pilots fly has inherent hazards not found in visual flying. The basis for this understanding is found in […]

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Aerodynamic Factors

Aerodynamic Factors

Several factors affect aircraft performance including the atmosphere, aerodynamics, and aircraft icing. Pilots need an understanding of these factors for a sound basis for prediction of aircraft response to control inputs, especially with regard to instrument approaches, while holding, and when operating at reduced airspeed in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Although these factors are important to the pilot flying visual flight rules […]

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