Controlling a helicopter is the result of accurately interpreting the flight instruments and translating these readings into correct control responses. Aircraft control involves adjustment to pitch, bank, power, and trim in order to achieve a desired flight path.
Pitch attitude control is controlling the movement of the helicopter about its lateral axis. After interpreting the helicopter’s pitch attitude by reference to the pitch instruments (attitude indicator, altimeter, airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator (VSI)), cyclic control adjustments are made to affect the desired pitch attitude. In this section, the pitch attitudes depicted are approximate and vary with different helicopters.
Bank attitude control is controlling the angle made by the lateral tilt of the rotor and the natural horizon or the movement of the helicopter about its longitudinal axis. After interpreting the helicopter’s bank instruments (attitude indicator, heading indicator, and turn indicator), cyclic control adjustments are made to attain the desired bank attitude.
Power control is the application of collective pitch with corresponding throttle control, where applicable. In straightand- level flight, changes of collective pitch are made to correct for altitude deviation if the error is more than 100 feet or the airspeed is off by more than 10 knots. If the error is less than that amount, a pilot should use a slight cyclic climb or descent.
In order to fly a helicopter by reference to the instruments, it is important to know the approximate power settings required for a particular helicopter in various load configurations and flight conditions.
Trim, in helicopters, refers to the use of the cyclic centering button, if the helicopter is so equipped, to relieve all possible cyclic pressures. Trim also refers to the use of pedal adjustment to center the ball of the turn indicator. Pedal trim is required during all power changes.
The proper adjustment of collective pitch and cyclic friction helps a pilot relax during instrument flight. Friction should be adjusted to minimize overcontrolling and to prevent creeping, but not applied to such a degree that control movement is limited. In addition, many helicopters equipped for instrument flight contain stability augmentation systems or an autopilot to help relieve pilot workload.