Pilot and student pilot community. Share your pilot lessons or aviation stories.



Airspace

Class D

No pilot may take off or land an aircraft at a satellite airport within a Class D airspace area except in compliance with FAA arrival and departure traffic patterns. A pilot departing from the primary airport or satellite airport with an operating control tower must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC while operating in the Class D airspace area. If departing from a satellite airport without an operating control tower, the pilot must establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class D airspace area as soon as practicable after departing.

Two-way radio communications must be established and maintained with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintained while within the airspace.

If the aircraft radio fails in flight under IFR, the pilot should continue the flight by the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; or, if being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance. In the absence of an assigned route, the pilot should continue by the route that ATC advised may be expected in a further clearance; or, if a route had not been advised, by the route filed in the flight plan.

If the aircraft radio fails in flight under VFR, the PIC may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received.

Class E

Unless otherwise required by 14 CFR part 93 or unless otherwise authorized or required by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the Class E airspace area, each pilot operating an aircraft on or in the vicinity of an airport in a Class E airspace area must comply with the requirements of Class G airspace. Each pilot must also comply with any traffic patterns established for that airport in 14 CFR part 93.

Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be established prior to four nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 feet AGL. However, if the aircraft radio fails in flight, the PIC may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received.

If the aircraft radio fails in flight under IFR, the pilot should continue the flight by the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; or, if being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance. In the absence of an assigned route, the pilot should continue by the route that ATC advised may be expected in a further clearance; or, if a route had not been advised, by the route filed in the flight plan.

Class G

When approaching to land at an airport without an operating control tower in Class G airspace:

  1. Each pilot of an airplane must make all turns of that airplane to the left unless the airport displays approved light signals or visual markings indicating that turns should be made to the right, in which case the pilot must make all turns to the right.
  2. Each pilot of a helicopter or a powered parachute must avoid the flow of fixed-wing aircraft.

Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower unless two-way radio communications are maintained between that aircraft and the control tower. Communications must be established prior to four nautical miles from the airport, up to and including 2,500 feet AGL. However, if the aircraft radio fails in flight, the pilot in command may operate that aircraft and land if weather conditions are at or above basic VFR weather minimums, visual contact with the tower is maintained, and a clearance to land is received.

If the aircraft radio fails in flight under IFR, the pilot should continue the flight by the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received; or, if being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance. In the absence of an assigned route, the pilot should continue by the route that ATC advised may be expected in a further clearance; or, if a route had not been advised, by the route filed in the flight plan.

Ultralight Vehicles

No person may operate an ultralight vehicle within Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an airport unless that person has prior authorization from the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that airspace. (See 14 CFR part 103.)

Unmanned Free Balloons

Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an unmanned free balloon below 2,000 feet above the surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport. (See 14 CFR part 101.)

Parachute Jumps

No person may make a parachute jump, and no PIC may allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft, in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the airspace. (See 14 CFR part 105.)

Operating in the Various Types of Airspace – Classes A, B and C

Class A Pilots operating an aircraft in Class A airspace must conduct that operation under IFR and only under an ATC clearance received prior to entering the airspace. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each aircraft operating in Class A airspace must be equipped with a two-way radio capable of communicating with ATC on a frequency […]

Read the full article →

Operating in the Various Types of Airspace

It is important that pilots be familiar with the operational requirements for each of the various types or classes of airspace. Subsequent sections cover each class in sufficient detail to facilitate understanding with regard to weather, type of pilot certificate held, as well as equipment required. Basic VFR Weather Minimums No pilot may operate an […]

Read the full article →

Air Traffic Control and the National Airspace System (Part One)

The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the system and to organize and expedite the flow of traffic. In addition to its primary function, the ATC system has the capability to provide (with certain limitations) additional services. The ability to provide additional services is limited by […]

Read the full article →

Other Airspace Areas (Part Two)

Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations Parachute jump aircraft operations are published in the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD). Sites that are used frequently are depicted on sectional charts. Published VFR Routes Published VFR routes are for transitioning around, under, or through some complex airspace. Terms such as VFR flyway, VFR corridor, Class B airspace VFR transition route, and […]

Read the full article →

Other Airspace Areas (Part One)

“Other airspace areas” is a general term referring to the majority of the remaining airspace. It includes: Local airport advisory Military training route (MTR) Temporary flight restriction (TFR) Parachute jump aircraft operations Published VFR routes Terminal radar service area (TRSA) National security area (NSA)Local Airport Advisory (LAA) A service provided by facilities, which are located […]

Read the full article →

Special Use Airspace (Part Two)

Warning Areas Warning areas are similar in nature to restricted areas; however, the United States government does not have sole jurisdiction over the airspace. A warning area is airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 12 NM outward from the coast of the United States, containing activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose […]

Read the full article →

Special Use Airspace (Part One)

Special use airspace or special area of operation (SAO) is the designation for airspace in which certain activities must be confined, or where limitations may be imposed on aircraft operations that are not part of those activities. Certain special use airspace areas can create limitations on the mixed use of airspace. The special use airspace […]

Read the full article →

Airspace Classifications

Controlled Airspace Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers the different classifications of airspace and defined dimensions within which air traffic control (ATC) service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. Controlled airspace consists of: Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Class A Airspace Class A airspace is generally […]

Read the full article →