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Aircraft Systems

Carburetor Systems

Aircraft Systems

Carburetors are classified as either float type or pressure type. The float type of carburetor, complete with idling, accelerating, mixture control, idle cutoff, and power enrichment systems is probably the most common of all carburetor types. Pressure carburetors are usually not found on small aircraft. The basic difference between a float-type and a pressure-type carburetor […]

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Induction Systems

Aircraft Systems

The induction system brings in air from the outside, mixes it with fuel, and delivers the fuel/air mixture to the cylinder where combustion occurs. Outside air enters the induction system through an intake port on the front of the engine cowling. This port normally contains an air filter that inhibits the entry of dust and […]

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Adjustable-Pitch Propellers (Part Two)

Aircraft Systems

On aircraft equipped with a constant-speed propeller, power output is controlled by the throttle and indicated by a manifold pressure gauge. The gauge measures the absolute pressure of the fuel/air mixture inside the intake manifold and is more correctly a measure of manifold absolute pressure (MAP). At a constant rpm and altitude, the amount of […]

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Adjustable-Pitch Propellers (Part One)

Aircraft Systems

The adjustable-pitch propeller was the forerunner of the constant-speed propeller. It is a propeller with blades whose pitch can be adjusted on the ground with the engine not running, but which cannot be adjusted in flight. It is also referred to as a ground adjustable propeller. By the 1930s, pioneer aviation inventors were laying the […]

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Fixed-Pitch Propellers

Aircraft Systems

A propeller with fixed blade angles is a fixed-pitch propeller. The pitch of this propeller is set by the manufacturer and cannot be changed. Since a fixed-pitch propeller achieves the best efficiency only at a given combination of airspeed and rpm, the pitch setting is ideal for neither cruise nor climb. Thus, the aircraft suffers […]

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Propellers

Aircraft Systems

The propeller is a rotating airfoil, subject to induced drag, stalls, and other aerodynamic principles that apply to any airfoil. It provides the necessary thrust to pull, or in some cases push, the aircraft through the air. The engine power is used to rotate the propeller, which in turn generates thrust very similar to the […]

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Reciprocating Engines (Part Four)

Aircraft Systems

The latest advance in aircraft reciprocating engines was pioneered in the mid-1960s by Frank Thielert, who looked to the automotive industry for answers on how to integrate diesel technology into an aircraft engine. The advantage of a diesel-fueled reciprocating engine lies in the physical similarity of diesel and kerosene. Aircraft equipped with a diesel piston […]

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Reciprocating Engines (Part Three)

Aircraft Systems

Spark ignition four-stroke engines remain the most common design used in general aviation today. [Figure 6-4] The main parts of a spark ignition reciprocating engine include the cylinders, crankcase, and accessory housing. The intake/exhaust valves, spark plugs, and pistons are located in the cylinders. The crankshaft and connecting rods are located in the crankcase. The […]

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Reciprocating Engines (Part Two)

Aircraft Systems

Continued improvements in engine design led to the development of the horizontally-opposed engine which remains the most popular reciprocating engines used on smaller aircraft. These engines always have an even number of cylinders, since a cylinder on one side of the crankcase “opposes” a cylinder on the other side. [Figure 6-2]  The majority of these […]

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