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Aircraft Systems

Ignition System

Aircraft Systems

In a spark ignition engine the ignition system provides a spark that ignites the fuel/air mixture in the cylinders and is made up of magnetos, spark plugs, high-tension leads, and the ignition switch. [Figure 6-16] A magneto uses a permanent magnet to generate an electrical current completely independent of the aircraft’s electrical system. The magneto […]

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Turbocharger System Operation

Aircraft Systems

Turbocharger operation.  On most modern turbocharged engines, the position of the waste gate is governed by a pressure-sensing control mechanism coupled to an actuator. Engine oil directed into or away from this actuator moves the waste gate position. On these systems, the actuator is automatically positioned to produce the desired MAP simply by changing the […]

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Aircraft Turbosuperchargers

Aircraft Systems

The most efficient method of increasing horsepower in an engine is by use of a turbosupercharger or turbocharger. Installed on an engine, this booster uses the engine’s exhaust gases to drive an air compressor to increase the pressure of the air going into the engine through the carburetor or fuel injection system to boost power […]

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Aircraft Superchargers

Aircraft Systems

A supercharger is an engine-driven air pump or compressor that provides compressed air to the engine to provide additional pressure to the induction air so the engine can produce additional power. It increases manifold pressure and forces the fuel/air mixture into the cylinders. The higher the manifold pressure, the more dense the fuel/air mixture, and […]

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Aircraft Superchargers and Turbosuperchargers

Aircraft Systems

To increase an engine’s horsepower, manufacturers have developed forced induction systems called supercharger and turbosupercharger systems. They both compress the intake air to increase its density. The key difference lies in the power supply. A supercharger relies on an engine-driven air pump or compressor, while a turbocharger gets its power from the exhaust stream that […]

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Fuel Injection Systems

Aircraft Systems

In a fuel injection system, the fuel is injected directly into the cylinders, or just ahead of the intake valve. The air intake for the fuel injection system is similar to that used in a carburetor system, with an alternate air source located within the engine cowling. This source is used if the external air […]

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Carburetor Heat

Aircraft Systems

Carburetor heat is an anti-icing system that preheats the air before it reaches the carburetor, and is intended to keep the fuel/air mixture above the freezing temperature to prevent the formation of carburetor ice. Carburetor heat can be used to melt ice that has already formed in the carburetor if the accumulation is not too […]

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Carburetor Icing

Aircraft Systems

As mentioned earlier, one disadvantage of the float-type carburetor is its icing tendency. Carburetor icing occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and the decrease in air pressure in the venturi, which causes a sharp temperature drop in the carburetor. If water vapor in the air condenses when the carburetor temperature is at or […]

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Mixture Control

Aircraft Systems

Carburetors are normally calibrated at sea-level pressure, where the correct fuel-to-air mixture ratio is established with the mixture control set in the FULL RICH position. However, as altitude increases, the density of air entering the carburetor decreases, while the density of the fuel remains the same. This creates a progressively richer mixture, which can result […]

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