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Aircraft Systems

Turbine Engine Instruments

Aircraft Systems

Engine instruments that indicate oil pressure, oil temperature, engine speed, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel flow are common to both turbine and reciprocating engines. However, there are some instruments that are unique to turbine engines. These instruments provide indications of engine pressure ratio, turbine discharge pressure, and torque. In addition, most gas turbine engines have […]

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Explosive Combustion

Aircraft Systems

During normal combustion, the fuel/air mixture burns in a very controlled and predictable manner. In a spark ignition engine the process occurs in a fraction of a second. The mixture actually begins to burn at the point where it is ignited by the spark plugs, then burns away from the plugs until it is all […]

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Starting System

Aircraft Systems

Most small aircraft use a direct-cranking electric starter system. This system consists of a source of electricity, wiring, switches, and solenoids to operate the starter and a starter motor. Most aircraft have starters that automatically engage and disengage when operated, but some older aircraft have starters that are mechanically engaged by a lever actuated by […]

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Exhaust Systems

Aircraft Systems

Engine exhaust systems vent the burned combustion gases overboard, provide heat for the cabin, and defrost the windscreen. An exhaust system has exhaust piping attached to the cylinders, as well as a muffler and a muffler shroud. The exhaust gases are pushed out of the cylinder through the exhaust valve and then through the exhaust […]

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Engine Cooling Systems

Aircraft Systems

The burning fuel within the cylinders produces intense heat, most of which is expelled through the exhaust system. Much of the remaining heat, however, must be removed, or at least dissipated, to prevent the engine from overheating. Otherwise, the extremely high engine temperatures can lead to loss of power, excessive oil consumption, detonation, and serious […]

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Oil Systems

Aircraft Systems

The engine oil system performs several important functions: Lubrication of the engine’s moving parts Cooling of the engine by reducing friction Removing heat from the cylinders Providing a seal between the cylinder walls and pistons Carrying away contaminants Reciprocating engines use either a wet-sump or a dry-sump oil system. In a wet-sump system, the oil […]

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Types of Turbine Engines

Aircraft Systems

Types of Turbine Engines Turbojet The turbojet engine consists of four sections: compressor, combustion chamber, turbine section, and exhaust. The compressor section passes inlet air at a high rate of speed to the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber contains the fuel inlet and igniter for combustion. The expanding air drives a turbine, which is connected […]

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Turbine Engines

Aircraft Systems

An aircraft turbine engine consists of an air inlet, compressor, combustion chambers, a turbine section, and exhaust. Thrust is produced by increasing the velocity of the air flowing through the engine. Turbine engines are highly desirable aircraft powerplants. They are characterized by smooth operation and a high power-to-weight ratio, and they use readily available jet […]

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Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)

Aircraft Systems

FADEC is a system consisting of a digital computer and ancillary components that control an aircraft’s engine and propeller. First used in turbine-powered aircraft, and referred to as full authority digital electronic control, these sophisticated control systems are increasingly being used in piston powered aircraft. In a spark ignition reciprocating engine the FADEC uses speed, […]

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