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Aircraft Systems

Aircraft Electrical Systems

Aircraft Systems

Most aircraft are equipped with either a 14- or a 28-volt direct current electrical system. A basic aircraft electrical system consists of the following components: Alternator/generator Battery Master/battery switch Alternator/generator switch Bus bar, fuses, and circuit breakers Voltage regulator Ammeter/loadmeter Associated electrical wiring Engine-driven alternators or generators supply electric current to the electrical system. They […]

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Refueling Procedures

Aircraft Systems

Static electricity is formed by the friction of air passing over the surfaces of an aircraft in flight and by the flow of fuel through the hose and nozzle during refueling. Nylon, Dacron, or wool clothing is especially prone to accumulate and discharge static electricity from the person to the funnel or nozzle. To guard […]

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Aircraft Fuel Systems (Part Three)

Aircraft Systems

Fuel Grades Aviation gasoline (AVGAS) is identified by an octane or performance number (grade), which designates the antiknock value or knock resistance of the fuel mixture in the engine cylinder. The higher the grade of gasoline, the more pressure the fuel can withstand without detonating. Lower grades of fuel are used in lower-compression engines because […]

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Aircraft Fuel Systems (Part Two)

Aircraft Systems

Fuel Gauges The aircraft fuel systems fuel quantity gauges indicate the amount of fuel measured by a sensing unit in each fuel tank and is displayed in gallons or pounds. Aircraft certification rules require accuracy in fuel gauges only when they read “empty.” Any reading other than “empty” should be verified. Do not depend solely […]

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Aircraft Fuel Systems (Part One)

Aircraft Systems

The fuel system is designed to provide an uninterrupted flow of clean fuel from the fuel tanks to the engine. The fuel must be available to the engine under all conditions of engine power, altitude, attitude, and during all approved flight maneuvers. Two common classifications apply to fuel systems in small aircraft: gravity-feed and fuel-pump […]

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Aircraft Engine Performance Comparison

Aircraft Systems

It is possible to compare the performance of a reciprocating powerplant and different types of turbine engines. For the comparison to be accurate, thrust horsepower (usable horsepower) for the reciprocating powerplant must be used rather than brake horsepower, and net thrust must be used for the turbine-powered engines. In addition, aircraft design configuration and size […]

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Turbine Engine Operational Considerations (Part Three) Flameout

Aircraft Systems

Flameout A flameout occurs in the operation of a gas turbine engine in which the fire in the engine unintentionally goes out. If the rich limit of the fuel/air ratio is exceeded in the combustion chamber, the flame will blow out. This condition is often referred to as a rich flameout. It generally results from […]

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Turbine Engine Operational Considerations (Part Two) Compressor Stalls

Aircraft Systems

Compressor Stalls Compressor blades are small airfoils and are subject to the same aerodynamic principles that apply to any airfoil. A compressor blade has an angle of attack which is a result of inlet air velocity and the compressor’s rotational velocity. These two forces combine to form a vector, which defines the airfoil’s actual angle […]

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Turbine Engine Operational Considerations (Part One)

Aircraft Systems

The great variety of turbine engines makes it impractical to cover specific operational procedures, but there are certain operational considerations common to all turbine engines. They are engine temperature limits, foreign object damage, hot start, compressor stall, and flameout. Engine Temperature Limitations The highest temperature in any turbine engine occurs at the turbine inlet. Turbine […]

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