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Aircraft Performance

In order to establish the allowable landing weight for a transport category aircraft, the following details must be considered:

  • Airfield pressure altitude
  • Temperature
  • Headwind component
  • Runway length
  • Runway gradient or slope
  • Runway surface condition

With these details, it is possible to establish the maximum allowable landing weight, which will be the lower of the weights as dictated by:

  • Landing runway requirements
  • Approach climb requirements

In practice, the approach climb limitations (ability to climb in approach configuration with one engine inoperative) are seldom encountered because the landing weights upon arrival at the destination airport are usually low. However, as in the second segment climb requirement for takeoff, this approach climb gradient must be met and landing weights must be restricted if necessary. The most likely conditions that would make the approach climb critical would be the landings at high weights and high pressure altitudes and temperatures, which might be encountered if a landing were required shortly after takeoff.

Landing field requirements can more frequently limit an aircraft’s allowable landing weight than the approach climb limitations. Again, however, unless the runway is particularly short, this is seldom problematical as the average landing weight at the destination rarely approaches the maximum design landing weight due to fuel burn off.

 

Air Carrier Obstacle Clearance Requirements (Part Two) Landing Performance

As in the takeoff planning, certain speeds must be considered during landing. These speeds are shown below. VSO—stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration. VREF—1.3 times the stalling speed in the landing configuration. This is the required speed at the 50-foot height above the threshold end of the runway. Approach […]

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Air Carrier Obstacle Clearance Requirements (Part One)

Regulations require that large transport category turbine powered aircraft certificated after September 30, 1958, be taken off at a weight that allows a net takeoff flightpath (one engine inoperative) that clears all obstacles either by a height of at least 35 feet vertically, or by at least 200 feet horizontally within the airport boundaries and […]

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Climb Requirements

After the aircraft has reached the 35 foot height with one engine inoperative, there is a requirement that it be able to climb at a specified climb gradient. This is known as the takeoff flightpath requirement. The aircraft’s performance must be considered based upon a one-engine inoperative climb up to 1,500 feet above the ground. […]

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Transport Category Airplane Performance – Runway Requirements

The runway requirements for takeoff are affected by: Pressure altitude Temperature Headwind component Runway gradient or slope Aircraft weight The runway required for takeoff must be based upon the possible loss of an engine at the most critical point, which is at V1 (decision speed). By regulation, the aircraft’s takeoff weight has to accommodate the […]

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Transport Category Airplane Performance – Performance Requirements

The performance requirements that the transport category aircraft must meet are: Takeoff Takeoff speeds Takeoff runway required Takeoff climb required Obstacle clearance requirements Landing Landing speeds Landing runway required Landing climb required Takeoff Planning Listed below are the speeds that affect the transport category aircraft’s takeoff performance. The flight crew must be thoroughly familiar with […]

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Transport Category Airplane Performance

Transport category aircraft are certificated under Title 14 of the CFR (14 CFR) parts 25 and 29. The airworthiness certification standards of part 25 and 29 require proven levels of performance and guarantee safety margins for these aircraft, regardless of the specific operating regulations under which they are employed. Major Differences in Transport Category Versus […]

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Performance Charts – Stall Speed Performance Charts

Stall speed performance charts are designed to give an understanding of the speed at which the aircraft will stall in a given configuration. This type of chart will typically take into account the angle of bank, the position of the gear and flaps, and the throttle position. Use Figure 10-33 and the accompanying conditions to […]

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Performance Charts – Landing Charts

Landing performance is affected by variables similar to those affecting takeoff performance. It is necessary to compensate for differences in density altitude, weight of the airplane, and headwinds. Like takeoff performance charts, landing distance information is available as normal landing information, as well as landing distance over a 50 foot obstacle. As usual, read the […]

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