# Aerodynamics

## Wingtip Vortices

Aerodynamics

Formation of Vortices The action of the airfoil that gives an aircraft lift also causes induced drag. When an airfoil is flown at a positive AOA, a pressure differential exists between the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The pressure above the wing is less than atmospheric pressure and the pressure below the wing […]

## Forces Acting on the Aircraft – Thrust

Aerodynamics

Thrust, drag, lift, and weight are forces that act upon all aircraft in flight. Understanding how these forces work and knowing how to control them with the use of power and flight controls are essential to flight. This chapter discusses the aerodynamics of flight—how design, weight, load factors, and gravity affect an aircraft during flight […]

## Airfoil Design (Part 3)

Aerodynamics

From experiments conducted on wind tunnel models and on full size airplanes, it has been determined that as air flows along the surface of a wing at different angles of attack, there are regions along the surface where the pressure is negative, or less than atmospheric, and regions where the pressure is positive, or greater […]

## Airfoil Design (Part 2)

Aerodynamics

In a wind tunnel or in flight, an airfoil is simply a streamlined object inserted into a moving stream of air. If the airfoil profile were in the shape of a teardrop, the speed and the pressure changes of the air passing over the top and bottom would be the same on both sides.

## Airfoil Design (Part 1)

Aerodynamics

In the sections devoted to Newton’s and Bernoulli‘s discoveries, it has already been discussed in general terms the question of how an airplane wing can sustain flight when the airplane is heavier than air.

## Drag

Aerodynamics

There are two basic types of drag, parasite drag and induced drag. Parasite drag is named so, because it in no way aids in flight. Induced drag is created (or induced) by the wings developing lift.

## Forces Acting on an Airplane

Aerodynamics

There are four forces that act on an airplane at all times during a flight. A pilot’s job is to balance those four forces to make the airplane do as he chooses.

## Bernoulli’s Principle of Pressure

Aerodynamics

Daniel Bernoulli explained that the pressure of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) varies with it’s speed.  He said that an increase in the speed of the fluid would create a decrease in pressure.