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Aerodynamics

Effect of Weight on Aircraft Structure

Aerodynamics

The effect of additional weight on the wing structure of an aircraft is not readily apparent. Airworthiness requirements prescribe that the structure of an aircraft certificated in the normal category (in which acrobatics are prohibited) must be strong enough to withstand a load factor of 3.8 Gs to take care of dynamic loads caused by […]

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Effect of Weight on Flight Performance

Aerodynamics

The takeoff/climb and landing performance of an aircraft are determined on the basis of its maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights. A heavier gross weight results in a longer takeoff run and shallower climb, and a faster touchdown speed and longer landing roll. Even a minor overload may make it impossible for the aircraft to […]

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Weight and Balance

Aerodynamics

The aircraft’s weight and balance data is important information for a pilot that must be frequently reevaluated. Although the aircraft was weighed during the certification process, this data is not valid indefinitely. Equipment changes or modifications affect the weight and balance data. Too often pilots reduce the aircraft weight and balance into a “rule of […]

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High Speed Flight – Shock Waves

Aerodynamics

When an airplane flies at subsonic speeds, the air ahead is “warned” of the airplane’s coming by a pressure change transmitted ahead of the airplane at the speed of sound. Because of this warning, the air begins to move aside before the airplane arrives and is prepared to let it pass easily. When the airplane’s […]

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Radius of Turn

Aerodynamics

The radius of turn is directly linked to the ROT, which explained earlier is a function of both bank angle and airspeed. If the bank angle is held constant and the airspeed is increased, the radius of the turn changes (increases). A higher airspeed causes the aircraft to travel through a longer arc due to […]

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Rate of Turn

Aerodynamics

The rate of turn (ROT) is the number of degrees (expressed in degrees per second) of heading change that an aircraft makes. The ROT can be determined by taking the constant of 1,091, multiplying it by the tangent of any bank angle and dividing that product by a given airspeed in knots as illustrated in […]

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Vg Diagram

Aerodynamics

The flight operating strength of an aircraft is presented on a graph whose vertical scale is based on load factor. [Figure 4-47] The diagram is called a Vg diagram—velocity versus G loads or load factor. Each aircraft has its own Vg diagram which is valid at a certain weight and altitude. The lines of maximum […]

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Load Factors and Flight Maneuvers (Part Two)

Aerodynamics

Chandelles and Lazy Eights A chandelle is a maximum performance climbing turn beginning from approximately straight-and-level flight, and ending at the completion of a precise 180° of turn in a wings-level, nose-high attitude at the minimum controllable airspeed. In this flight maneuver, the aircraft is in a steep climbing turn and almost stalls to gain […]

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Load Factors and Flight Maneuvers (Part One)

Aerodynamics

Critical load factors apply to all flight maneuvers except unaccelerated straight flight where a load factor of 1 G is always present. Certain maneuvers considered in this section are known to involve relatively high load factors. Turns Increased load factors are a characteristic of all banked turns. As noted in the section on load factors […]

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