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Advanced Avionics

Autopilot Concepts

Automated Flight Control

An autopilot can be capable of many very time intensive tasks, helping the pilot focus on the overall status of the aircraft and flight. Good use of an autopilot helps automate the process of guiding and controlling the aircraft. Autopilots can automate tasks, such as maintaining an altitude, climbing or descending to an assigned altitude, […]

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Ground-Based Radio Navigation

Navigation

Configuring FMS To Receive Ground-Based Radio Navigation Signals Most advanced avionics systems include receivers for conventional radio navigation signals from VOR, localizer, and glideslope transmitters. To display these signals on the navigation display indicator(s), you need two fundamental skills. Tuning and Identifying Radio Navigation Facilities The first fundamental skill in ground-based radio navigation is tuning […]

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Missed Approaches

Navigation

The FMS/GPS unit’s nonsequencing mode provides an easy way to fly missed approach procedures, such as the one illustrated in Figure 3-56. The missed approach procedure shown in Figure 3-56 requires you to climb to 1,900 feet, turn right and climb to 6,000 feet, then proceed direct to the SNS VOR. The FMS/GPS helps you […]

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Course Reversals

Navigation

Figure 3-53 shows three common course reversals: (1) 45-degree procedure turn, (2) holding pattern, and (3) teardrop procedure. Course reversals are handled in the same way as holding procedures, by using the FMS/GPS’s nonsequencing mode. As you arrive at the initial approach waypoint, the unit’s nonsequencing mode should be engaged to prevent it from immediately […]

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LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LPV

Navigation

LNAV LNAV (lateral navigation), like a conventional localizer, provides lateral approach course guidance. LNAV minimums permit descent to a prescribed minimum descent altitude (MDA). The LNAV procedure shown on the chart in Figure 3-48 offers an MDA of 1,620 feet. LNAV/VNAV LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical navigation) equipment is similar to ILS in that it provides both […]

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GPS and RNAV (GPS) Approaches

Navigation

An IFR-capable GPS RNAV/FMS with qualified GPS receiver(s) can be used as the sole means of navigation for several kinds of instrument approach procedures, but you need to know which approaches can be used with your particular GPS RNAV unit. The following paragraphs review the approaches available today. A GPS overlay approach is illustrated in […]

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Holding and Arcs

Navigation

The FMS/GPS unit’s nonsequencing mode provides an easy way to accomplish holding procedures. When instructed to hold at a waypoint that appears in the route programmed in the FMS/GPS unit, simply engage the nonsequencing mode prior to reaching the waypoint. With waypoint sequencing suspended, you can determine and fly the appropriate holding pattern entry, select […]

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Intercept And Track Course

Navigation

Intercepting and Tracking a Different Course to the Active Waypoint Figure 3-37 illustrates a common situation. Air traffic control instructs you to fly to a waypoint via an inbound course different from the desired track calculated by the FMS. In the example in Figure 3-37, you are en route to SUNOL intersection. The FMS has […]

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Descent (Part Two)

Navigation

Managing Speed Up to this point the focus has been on the task of losing excess altitude. For example, in the situation shown in Figure 3-27, you are faced with the requirement to reduce altitude from 11,000 feet to 3,000 feet. Most descent scenarios also present the challenge of losing excess speed. In piston aircraft […]

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