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Aviation Terminology – T

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TAA. See terminal arrival area.

TACAN. See tactical air navigation.

Tactical air navigation (TACAN). An electronic navigation system used by military aircraft, providing both distance and direction information.

TAWS. See terrain awareness and warning system.

TCAS. See traffic alert collision avoidance system.

TCH. See threshold crossing height.

TDZE. See touchdown zone elevation.

TEC. See Tower En Route Control.

Technique. The manner in which procedures are executed.

Temporary flight restriction (TFR). Restriction to flight imposed in order to:

  1. Protect persons and property in the air or on the surface from an existing or imminent flight associated hazard;
  2. Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft;
  3. Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft above an incident;
  4. Protect the President, Vice President, or other public figures; and,
  5. Provide a safe environment for space agency operations.

Pilots are expected to check appropriate NOTAMs during flight planning when conducting flight in an area where a temporary flight restriction is in effect.

Tension. Maintaining an excessively strong grip on the control column, usually resulting in an overcontrolled situation.

Terminal Instrument Approach Procedure (TERP). Prescribes standardized methods for use in designing instrument flight procedures.

Terminal arrival area (TAA). A procedure to provide a new transition method for arriving aircraft equipped with FMS and/or GPS navigational equipment. The TAA contains a “T” structure that normally provides a NoPT for aircraft using the approach.

TERP. See terminal instrument approach procedure.

Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). A timed-based system that provides information concerning potential hazards with fixed objects by using GPS positioning and a database of terrain and obstructions to provide true predictability of the upcoming terrain and obstacles.

TFR. See temporary flight restriction.

Threshold crossing height (TCH). The theoretical height above the runway threshold at which the aircraft’s glide slope antenna would be if the aircraft maintains the trajectory established by the mean ILS glide slope or MLS glide path.

Thrust (aerodynamic force). The forward aerodynamic force produced by a propeller, fan, or turbojet engine as it forces a mass of air to the rear, behind the aircraft.

Time and speed table. A table depicted on an instrument approach procedure chart that identifies the distance from the FAF to the MAP, and provides the time required to transit that distance based on various groundspeeds.

Timed turn. A turn in which the clock and the turn coordinator are used to change heading a definite number of degrees in a given time.

TIS. See traffic information service.

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). The federal aviation regulations governing the operation of aircraft, airways, and airmen.

Touchdown zone elevation (TDZE). The highest elevation in the first 3,000 feet of the landing surface, TDZE is indicated on the instrument approach procedure chart when straight-in landing minimums are authorized.

Tower En Route Control (TEC). The control of IFR en route traffic within delegated airspace between two or more adjacent approach control facilities, designed to expedite traffic and reduce control and pilot communication requirements.

TPP. See United States Terminal Procedures Publication.

Tracking. Flying a heading that will maintain the desired track to or from the station regardless of crosswind conditions.

Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). An airborne system developed by the FAA that operates independently from the ground-based Air Traffic Control system. Designed to increase flight deck awareness of proximate aircraft and to serve as a “last line of defense” for the prevention of mid-air collisions.

Traffic information service (TIS). A ground-based service providing information to the flight deck via data link using the S-mode transponder and altitude encoder to improve the safety and efficiency of “see and avoid” flight through an automatic display that informs the pilot of nearby traffic.

Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB). Meteorological and aeronautical data recorded on tapes and broadcast over selected NAVAIDs. Generally, the broadcast contains routeoriented data with specially prepared NWS forecasts, inflight advisories, and winds aloft. It also includes selected current information such as weather reports (METAR/SPECI), NOTAMs, and special notices.

Transponder. The airborne portion of the ATC radar beacon system.

Transponder code. One of 4,096 four-digit discrete codes ATC assigns to distinguish between aircraft.

Trend. Immediate indication of the direction of aircraft movement, as shown on instruments.

Trim. Adjusting the aerodynamic forces on the control surfaces so that the aircraft maintains the set attitude without any control input.

TWEB. See Transcribed Weather Broadcast.

True airspeed. Actual airspeed, determined by applying a correction for pressure altitude and temperature to the CAS.

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