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N to O

Aviation Terminology – N to O

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NACG. See National Aeronautical Charting Group.

NAS. See National Airspace System.

National Airspace System (NAS). The common network of United States airspace—air navigation facilities, equipment and services, airports or landing areas; aeronautical charts, information and services; rules, regulations and procedures, technical information; and manpower and material.

National Aeronautical Charting Group (NACG). A Federal agency operating under the FAA, responsible for publishing charts such as the terminal procedures and en route charts.

National Route Program (NRP). A set of rules and procedures designed to increase the flexibility of user flight planning within published guidelines.

National Security Area (NSA). Areas consisting of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities. Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying through the depicted NSA. When it is necessary to provide a greater level of security and safety, flight in NSAs may be temporarily prohibited. Regulatory prohibitions are disseminated via NOTAMs.

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). A United States Government independent organization responsible for investigations of accidents involving aviation, highways, waterways, pipelines, and railroads in the United States. NTSB is charged by congress to investigate every civil aviation accident in the United States.

NAVAID. Naviagtional aid.

NAV/COM. Navigation and communication radio.

NDB. See nondirectional radio beacon.

NM. Nautical mile.

NOAA. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

No-gyro approach. A radar approach that may be used in case of a malfunctioning gyro-compass or directional gyro. Instead of providing the pilot with headings to be flown, the controller observes the radar track and issues control instructions “turn right/left” or “stop turn,” as appropriate.

Nondirectional radio beacon (NDB). A ground-based radio transmitter that transmits radio energy in all directions.

Nonprecision approach. A standard instrument approach procedure in which only horizontal guidance is provided.

No procedure turn (NoPT). Term used with the appropriate course and altitude to denote that the procedure turn is not required.

NoPT. See no procedure turn.

Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). A notice filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of any hazards en route or at a specific location. The authority in turn provides means of disseminating relevant NOTAMs to pilots.

NRP. See National Route Program.

NSA. See National Security Area.

NTSB. See National Transportation Safety Board.

NWS. National Weather Service.

Obstacle departure procedures (ODP). Obstacle clearance protection provided to aircraft in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).

ODP. See obstacle departure procedures.

OM. Outer marker.

Omission error. The failure to anticipate significant instrument indications following attitude changes; for example, concentrating on pitch control while forgetting about heading or roll information, resulting in erratic control of heading and bank.

Optical illusion. A misleading visual image. For the purpose of this handbook, the term refers to the brain’s misinterpretation of features on the ground associated with landing, which causes a pilot to misread the spatial relationships between the aircraft and the runway.

Orientation. Awareness of the position of the aircraft and of oneself in relation to a specific reference point.

Otolith organ. An inner ear organ that detects linear acceleration and gravity orientation.

Outer marker. A marker beacon at or near the glide slope intercept altitude of an ILS approach. It is normally located four to seven miles from the runway threshold on the extended centerline of the runway.

Overcontrolling. Using more movement in the control column than is necessary to achieve the desired pitch-and bank condition.

Overpower. To use more power than required for the purpose of achieving a faster rate of airspeed change.

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