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E to F

Aviation Terminology – E to F

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Eddy currents. Current induced in a metal cup or disc when it is crossed by lines of flux from a moving magnet.

EFAS. See En Route Flight Advisory Service.

EFC. See expect-further-clearance.

Electronic flight display (EFD). For the purpose of standardization, any flight instrument display that uses LCD or other image-producing system (Cathode Ray Tube [CRT], etc.)

Elevator illusion. The sensation of being in a climb or descent, caused by the kind of abrupt vertical accelerations that result from up- or downdrafts.

Emergency. A distress or urgent condition.

Emphasis error. The result of giving too much attention to a particular instrument during the cross-check, instead of relying on a combination of instruments necessary for attitude and performance information.

EM wave. Electromagnetic wave.

Encoding altimeter. A special type of pressure altimeter used to send a signal to the air traffic controller on the ground, showing the pressure altitude the aircraft is flying.

En route facilities ring. Depicted in the plan view of IAP charts, a circle which designates NAVAIDs, fixes, and intersections that are part of the en route low altitude airway structure.

En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS). An en route weather-only AFSS service.

En route high-altitude charts. Aeronautical charts for en route instrument navigation at or above 18,000 feet MSL.

En route low-altitude charts. Aeronautical charts for en route IFR navigation below 18,000 feet MSL.

Equivalent airspeed. Airspeed equivalent to CAS in standard atmosphere at sea level. As the airspeed and pressure altitude increase, the CAS becomes higher than it should be, and a correction for compression must be subtracted from the CAS.

Expect-further-clearance (EFC). The time a pilot can expect to receive clearance beyond a clearance limit.

FAA. Federal Aviation Administration.

FAF. See final approach fix.

False horizon. Inaccurate visual information for aligning the aircraft, caused by various natural and geometric formations that disorient the pilot from the actual horizon.

Federal airways. Class E airspace areas that extend upward from 1,200 feet to, but not including, 18,000 feet MSL, unless otherwise specified.

Feeder facilities. Used by ATC to direct aircraft to intervening fixes between the en route structure and the initial approach fix.

Final approach. Part of an instrument approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished.

Final approach fix (FAF). The fix from which the IFR final approach to an airport is executed, and which identifies the beginning of the final approach segment. An FAF is designated on government charts by a Maltese cross symbol for nonprecision approaches, and a lightning bolt symbol for precision approaches.

Fixating. Staring at a single instrument, thereby interrupting the cross-check process.

FL. See flight level.

Flight configurations. Adjusting the aircraft control surfaces (including flaps and landing gear) in a manner that will achieve a specified attitude.

Flight director indicator (FDI). One of the major components of a flight director system, it provides steering commands that the pilot (or the autopilot, if coupled) follows.

Flight level (FL). A measure of altitude (in hundreds of feet) used by aircraft flying above 18,000 feet with the altimeter set at 29.92″ Hg.

Flight management system (FMS). Provides pilot and crew with highly accurate and automatic long-range navigation capability, blending available inputs from long- and shortrange sensors.

Flight path. The line, course, or track along which an aircraft is flying or is intended to be flown.

Flight patterns. Basic maneuvers, flown by reference to the instruments rather than outside visual cues, for the purpose of practicing basic attitude flying. The patterns simulate maneuvers encountered on instrument flights such as holding patterns, procedure turns, and approaches.

Flight strips. Paper strips containing instrument flight information, used by ATC when processing flight plans.

FMS. See flight management system.

Form drag. The drag created because of the shape of a component or the aircraft.

Fundamental skills. Pilot skills of instrument cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control.

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