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Flight Learnings

LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, and LPV

Navigation

LNAV LNAV (lateral navigation), like a conventional localizer, provides lateral approach course guidance. LNAV minimums permit descent to a prescribed minimum descent altitude (MDA). The LNAV procedure shown on the chart in Figure 3-48 offers an MDA of 1,620 feet. LNAV/VNAV LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical navigation) equipment is similar to ILS in that it provides both […]

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GPS and RNAV (GPS) Approaches

Navigation

An IFR-capable GPS RNAV/FMS with qualified GPS receiver(s) can be used as the sole means of navigation for several kinds of instrument approach procedures, but you need to know which approaches can be used with your particular GPS RNAV unit. The following paragraphs review the approaches available today. A GPS overlay approach is illustrated in […]

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Holding and Arcs

Navigation

The FMS/GPS unit’s nonsequencing mode provides an easy way to accomplish holding procedures. When instructed to hold at a waypoint that appears in the route programmed in the FMS/GPS unit, simply engage the nonsequencing mode prior to reaching the waypoint. With waypoint sequencing suspended, you can determine and fly the appropriate holding pattern entry, select […]

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Intercept And Track Course

Navigation

Intercepting and Tracking a Different Course to the Active Waypoint Figure 3-37 illustrates a common situation. Air traffic control instructs you to fly to a waypoint via an inbound course different from the desired track calculated by the FMS. In the example in Figure 3-37, you are en route to SUNOL intersection. The FMS has […]

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Descent (Part Two)

Navigation

Managing Speed Up to this point the focus has been on the task of losing excess altitude. For example, in the situation shown in Figure 3-27, you are faced with the requirement to reduce altitude from 11,000 feet to 3,000 feet. Most descent scenarios also present the challenge of losing excess speed. In piston aircraft […]

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Descent (Part One)

Navigation

Making the transition from cruise flight to the beginning of an instrument approach procedure sometimes requires arriving at a given waypoint at an assigned altitude. When this requirement is prescribed by a published arrival procedure or issued by ATC, it is called a crossing restriction. Even when ATC allows a descent at the pilot’s discretion, […]

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En Route Modifications

Navigation

Part of the challenge of using FMS en route is dealing with modifications to the planned flight route. This section describes five en route modifications. Adding and Deleting Waypoints From the Programmed Route All FMS/RNAV units allow en route (not published departure, arrival or approach) waypoints to be added and deleted to the programmed route. […]

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En Route Navigation (Part Two)

Navigation

Waypoint Sequencing The third service performed by sequencing mode is waypoint sequencing. Once the aircraft reaches the active waypoint, the FMS automatically makes the next waypoint in the flight plan sequence the new active waypoint. Waypoint sequencing is illustrated in Figure 3-20. Awareness: Making Waypoint Callouts To help you stay in touch with the progress […]

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En Route Navigation (Part One)

Navigation

The FMS provides guidance toward each waypoint in the programmed flight route, and provides information to help you track your progress. The Active Waypoint In normal navigation, at any given time, the aircraft is progressing to the next waypoint in the programmed flight route. This next waypoint is called the active waypoint. FMSs typically display […]

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