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Flight Learnings

Global Positioning System (GPS) (Part Five)

Navigation Systems

Departures and Instrument Departure Procedures (DPs) The GPS receiver must be set to terminal (±1 NM) CDI sensitivity and the navigation routes contained in the database in order to fly published IFR charted departures and DPs. Terminal RAIM should be provided automatically by the receiver. (Terminal RAIM for departure may not be available unless the […]

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Global Positioning System (GPS) (Part Four)

Navigation Systems

GPS Instrument Approaches There is a mixture of GPS overlay approaches (approaches with “or GPS” in the title) and GPS stand-alone approaches in the United States. NOTE: GPS instrument approach operations outside the United States must be authorized by the appropriate country authority. While conducting these IAPs, ground-based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational […]

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Global Positioning System (GPS) (Part Three)

Navigation Systems

To Determine Aircraft Position Over an NDB/ Compass Locator: Verify aircraft GPS system integrity monitoring is functioning properly and indicates satisfactory integrity. Select the NDB/compass locator facility from the airborne database. When using an NDB/compass locator, the facility must be charted and be in the airborne database. If the facility is not in the airborne […]

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Global Positioning System (GPS) (Part Two)

Navigation Systems

GPS Substitution IFR En Route and Terminal Operations GPS systems, certified for IFR en route and terminal operations, may be used as a substitute for ADF and DME receivers when conducting the following operations within the United States NAS. Determining the aircraft position over a DME fix. This includes en route operations at and above […]

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Global Positioning System (GPS) (Part One)

Navigation Systems

The GPS is a satellite-based radio navigation system, which broadcasts a signal that is used by receivers to determine precise position anywhere in the world. The receiver tracks multiple satellites and determines a measurement that is then used to determine the user location. [Figure 7-28] The Department of Defense (DOD) developed and deployed GPS as […]

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Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

Navigation Systems

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a constellation of satellites providing a high-frequency signal which contains time and distance that is picked up by a receiver thereby. [Figure 7-27] The receiver which picks up multiple signals from different satellites is able to triangulate its position from these satellites. Three GNSSs exist today: the GPS, […]

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Long Range Navigation (LORAN)

Navigation Systems

LORAN uses a network of land-based transmitters to provide an accurate long-range navigation system. The FAA and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) arranged the stations into chains. The signal from station is a carefully structured sequence of brief RF pulses centered at 100 kHz. At that frequency, signals travel considerable distances as ground waves, […]

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Area Navigation (RNAV)

Navigation Systems

Area navigation (RNAV) equipment includes VOR/DME, LORAN, GPS, and inertial navigation systems (INS). RNAV equipment is capable of computing the aircraft position, actual track, groundspeed, and then presenting meaningful information to the pilot. This information may be in the form of distance, cross-track error, and time estimates relative to the selected track or WP. In […]

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Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

Navigation Systems

When used in conjunction with the VOR system, DME makes it possible for pilots to determine an accurate geographic position of the aircraft, including the bearing and distance TO or FROM the station. The aircraft DME transmits interrogating radio frequency (RF) pulses, which are received by the DME antenna at the ground facility. The signal […]

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