Pilot and student pilot community. Share your pilot lessons or aviation stories.



Flight Learnings

Approaches (Part One)

IFR Flight

Compliance With Published Standard Instrument Approach Procedures Compliance with the approach procedures shown on the approach charts provides necessary navigation guidance information for alignment with the final approach courses, as well as obstruction clearance. Under certain conditions, a course reversal maneuver or procedure turn may be necessary. However, this procedure is not authorized when: The symbol […]

Read the full article →

Holding Procedures

IFR Flight

Depending upon traffic and weather conditions, holding may be required. Holding is a predetermined maneuver which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance from ATC. A standard holding pattern uses right turns, and a nonstandard holding pattern uses left turns. The ATC clearance will always specify left turns when a nonstandard pattern […]

Read the full article →

En Route Procedures

IFR Flight

Procedures en route will vary according to the proposed route, the traffic environment, and the ATC facilities controlling the flight. Some IFR flights are under radar surveillance and controlled from departure to arrival, and others rely entirely on pilot navigation. Where ATC has no jurisdiction, it does not issue an IFR clearance. It has no […]

Read the full article →

Departure Procedures (DPs)

IFR Flight

Instrument departure procedures are preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) procedures, which provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure and provide the pilot with a way to depart the airport and transition to the en route structure safely. Pilots operating under 14 CFR part 91 are strongly encouraged to file […]

Read the full article →

Clearances

IFR Flight

An ATC clearance allows an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace for the purpose of providing separation between known aircraft. Examples A flight filed for a short distance at a relatively low altitude in an area of low traffic density might receive a clearance as follows: “Cessna 1230 Alpha, cleared to […]

Read the full article →

IFR Flight Plan

IFR Flight

As specified in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, no person may operate an aircraft in controlled airspace under IFR unless that person has filed an IFR flight plan. Flight plans may be submitted to the nearest AFSS or air traffic control tower (ATCT) either in person, by telephone […]

Read the full article →

Sources of Flight Planning Information

IFR Flight

The following resources are available for a pilot planning a flight conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR). National Aeronautical Charting Group (NACG) publications: IFR en route charts area charts United States (U.S.) Terminal Procedures Publications (TPP) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) publications: AIM Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) for flight planning in […]

Read the full article →

Control Sequence

The Air Traffic Control System

The IFR system is flexible and accommodating if pilots do their homework, have as many frequencies as possible written down before they are needed, and have an alternate in mind if the flight cannot be completed as planned. Pilots should familiarize themselves with all the facilities and services available along the planned route of flight. […]

Read the full article →

Approach Control Facility

The Air Traffic Control System

An approach control facility is a terminal ATC facility that provides approach control service in the terminal area. Services are provided for arriving and departing VFR and IFR aircraft and, on occasion, en route aircraft. In addition, for airports with parallel runways with ILS or LDA approaches, the approach control facility provides monitoring of the […]

Read the full article →