# Compasses (Part Two)

Deviation

Because deviation depends upon the distribution of magnetic forces in the aircraft itself, it must be obtained individually for each magnetic compass on each aircraft. The process of determining deviation, known as compass swinging, should be discussed in the technical order for each compass.

Deviation changes with heading are shown in Figure 3-6. The net result of all magnetic forces of the aircraft (those forces excluding the earth’s field) is represented by a dot located just behind the wings of the aircraft. If the aircraft is headed toward MN, the dot attracts one pole of the magnetic compass (in this case, the South Pole) but, on this heading, does not change its direction. The only effect is to amplify the directive force of the earth’s field. If the aircraft heads toward magnetic east, the dot is now west of the compass, and attracts the South Pole of the compass, causing easterly deviation. Figure 3-6 also shows that the deviation is zero on a south heading, and westerly when the aircraft is heading west.

Figure 3-6. Deviation changes with heading.

Deviation can be reduced (but not eliminated) in some direct-indicating magnetic compasses by adjusting the small compensating magnets in the compass case. Remaining deviation is referred to as residual deviation and can be determined by comparison with true values. This residual deviation is recorded on a compass correction card showing actual deviation on various headings or the compass headings. From the compass correction card illustrated in Figure 3-7, the navigator knows that to fly a magnetic heading (MH) of 270°, the pilot must steer a CH of 268°.

Figure 3-7. Compass correction card.

Errors in Flight

Unfortunately, deviation is not the only error of a magnetic compass. Additional errors are introduced by the motion of the aircraft itself. These errors have minimal effect on the use of magnetic compasses and come into play normally during turns or changes in speed. They are mentioned only to bring awareness of the limitations of the basic compass. Although a basic magnetic compass has some shortcomings, it is simple and reliable. The compass is very useful to both the pilot and navigator and is carried on all aircraft as an auxiliary compass. Because compass systems are dependent upon the electrical system of the aircraft, a loss of power means a loss of the compass system. For this reason, an occasional check on the standby compass provides an excellent backup to the main systems.

Remote-Indicating Gyro-Stabilized Magnetic Compass System

A chief disadvantage of the simple magnetic compass is its susceptibility to deviation. In remote-indicating gyrostabilized compass systems, this difficulty is overcome by locating the compass direction-sensing device outside magnetic fields created by electrical circuits in the aircraft. This is done by installing the direction-sensing device in a remote part of the aircraft, such as the outer extremity of a wing or vertical stabilizer. Indicators of the compass system can then be located throughout the aircraft without regard to magnetic disturbances.

Several kinds of compass system are used in aircraft systems. All include the following five basic components: remote compass transmitter, directional gyro (DG), amplifier, heading indicators, and slaving control. Though the names of these components vary among systems, the principle of operation is identical for each. Thus, the N-1 compass system shown in Figure 3-8 can be considered typical of all such systems.

Figure 3-8. N-1 compass system components. [click image to enlarge]

The N-1 compass system is designed for airborne use at all latitudes. It can be used either as a magnetic-slaved compass or as a DG. In addition, the N-1 generates an electric signal that is used as an azimuth reference by the autopilot, the radar system, the navigation and bombing computers, and various compass cards.

Remote Compass Transmitter

The remote compass transmitter is the magnetic-direction sensing component of the compass system when the system is in operation as a magnetic-slaved compass. The transmitter is located as far from magnetic disturbances of the aircraft as possible, usually in a wing tip or the vertical stabilizer. The transmitter senses the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field and electrically transmits it to the master indicator. The compensator, an auxiliary unit of the remote compass transmitter, is used to eliminate most of the magnetic deviation caused by the aircraft electrical equipment and ferrous metal when a deviation-free location for the remote compass transmitter is not available.

Directional Gyro (DG)

The DG is the stabilizing component of the compass system when the system is in magnetic-slaved operation. When the compass system is in DG operation, the gyro acts as the directional reference component of the system.

Amplifier

The amplifier is the receiving and distributing center of the compass system. Azimuth correction and leveling signals originating in the components of the system are each received, amplified, and transmitted by separate channels in the amplifier. Primary power to operate the compass is fed to the amplifier and distributed to the systems components.

Master Indicator

The master indicator is the heading-indicating component of the compass system. The mechanism in the master indicator integrates all data received from the directional gyro and the remote compass transmitter, corrects the master indicator heading pointer for azimuth drift of the DG due to the earth’s rotation, and provides takeoff signals for operating remote indicators, radar, navigation computers, and directional control of the autopilot.

The latitude correction control provides a means for selecting either magnetic-slaved operation or DG operation of the compass system, as well as the proper latitude correction rate. The latitude correction pointer is mechanically connected to the latitude correction control knob and indicates the latitude setting on the latitude correction scale at the center of the master indicator dial face.

The synchronizer control knob at the lower right-hand corner of the master indicator face provides a means of synchronizing the master indicator heading pointer with the correct MH when the system is in magnetic-slaved operation. It also provides a means of setting the master indicator heading pointer on the desired gyro heading reference when the system is in DG operation. The annunciator pointer indicates the direction in which to rotate the synchronizer control knob to align the heading pointer with the correct MH.

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