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Basic Instrument Flight Patterns (Part Two)

by Flight Learnings

in Airplane Basic Flight Maneuvers - Analog Instrumentation

80/260 Procedure Turn

  1. Start timing at point A (usually identified on approach procedures by a fix). For example, fly outbound on a heading of 360° for 2 minutes. [Figure 7-43]
  2. At B, enter a left standard rate turn of 80° to a heading of 280°.
  3. At the completion of the 80° turn to 280° (Point C), immediately turn right 260°, rolling-out on a heading of 180° (Point D) and also the reciprocal of the entry heading.
Figure 7-43. 80/260 procedure turn (entire pattern in level flight).

Figure 7-43. 80/260 procedure turn (entire pattern in level flight).

Teardrop Patterns

There are three typical teardrop procedure turns. A 30°, 20°, and a 10° teardrop pattern. The below steps indicate actions for all three starting on a heading of 360°. [Figure 7-44]

1. At point B (after stabilizing on the outbound course) turn left:

  • 30° to a heading of 330° and time for 1 minute
  • 20° to a heading of 340° and time for 2 minutes
  • 10° to a heading of 350° and time for 3 minutes

2. After the appropriate time above (Point C), make a standard rate turn to the right for:

  • 30° teardrop—210° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)
  • 20° teardrop—200° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)
  • 10° teardrop—190° to the final course heading of 180° (Point D)

By using the different teardrop patterns, a pilot is afforded the ability to manage time more efficiently. For instance, a 10° pattern for 3 minutes provides about three times the distance (and time) than a 30° pattern. Pattern selection should be based upon an individual assessment of the procedure turn requirements to include wind, complexity, the individual preparedness, etc.

Figure 7-44. Teardrop pattern (entire pattern in level flight).

Figure 7-44. Teardrop pattern (entire pattern in level flight).

Circling Approach Patterns

Pattern I

  1. At A, start timing for 2 minutes from A to B; reduce airspeed to approach speed. [Figure 7-45]
  2. At B, make a standard rate turn to the left for 45°.
  3. At the completion of the turn, time for 45 seconds to C.
  4. At C, turn to the original heading; fly 1 minute to D, lowering the landing gear and flaps.
  5. At D, turn right 180°, rolling-out at E on the reciprocal of the entry heading.
  6. At E, enter a 500 fpm rate descent. At the end of a 500 foot descent, enter a straight constant-airspeed climb, retracting gear and flaps.
Figure 7-45. Circling approach pattern I (imaginary runway).

Figure 7-45. Circling approach pattern I (imaginary runway).

Pattern II

Steps:

  1. At A, start timing for 2 minutes from A to B; reduce airspeed to approach speed. [Figure 7-46]
  2. At B, make a standard rate turn to the left for 45°.
  3. At the completion of the turn, time for 1 minute to C.
  4. At C, turn right for 180° to D; fly for 1-1/2 minutes to E, lowering the landing gear and flaps.
  5. At E, turn right for 180°, rolling-out at F.
  6. At F, enter a 500 fpm rate descent. At the end of a 500 foot descent, enter a straight constant-airspeed climb, retracting gear and flaps.
Figure 7-46. Circling approach pattern II (imaginary runway).

Figure 7-46. Circling approach pattern II (imaginary runway).

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