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Navigation Instruments

by Flight Learnings

in Electronic Flight Instruments

PFDs and multi-function displays (MFDs) typically combine several navigation instruments into a single presentation. The instrument appearing at the bottom of the PFD in Figure 2-1 contains two navigation indicators: a course deviation indicator and a bearing pointer. These instruments can be displayed in a variety of views, and can be coupled to many of the navigation receivers (e.g., instrument landing system (ILS), global positioning system (GPS), very high frequency (VHF) omnidirectional range (VOR)) available in the aircraft. The pilot must, therefore, be sure to maintain an awareness of which navigation receivers are coupled to each navigation indicator.

Figure 2-1. A typical primary flight display (PFD).

Figure 2-1. A typical primary flight display (PFD).

MFDs may provide the same type of display as installed in the PFD position, but are usually programmed to display just the navigation information with traffic, systems data, radar Stormscope®/ Strikefinder®. However, in many systems, the MFD can be selected to repeat the information presented on the PFD, thereby becoming the standby PFD. The pilot should be absolutely certain of and proficient with the standby modes of operation.

More sophisticated PFDs present three-dimensional (3D) course indications. The primary flight display in Figure 2-4 shows a 3D course indication, called a highway-in-the-sky (HITS) display. This display provides both lateral and vertical guidance along the planned flight path, while simultaneously presenting a 3D picture of the surrounding terrain. Keeping the symbolic aircraft within the green boxes on the display ensures that the flight remains within the selected GPS route and altitude. Consult the AFM and avionics manual for required navigational configuration for this function to be available.

Figure 2-4. An attitude indicator with HITS display symbology.

Figure 2-4. An attitude indicator with HITS display symbology.


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