Before a cross-country flight, a pilot should make common calculations for time, speed, and distance, and the amount of fuel required.

**Converting Minutes to Equivalent Hours**

Frequently, it is necessary to convert minutes into equivalent hours when solving speed, time, and distance problems. To convert minutes to hours, divide by 60 (60 minutes = 1 hour). Thus, 30 minutes is 30/60 = 0.5 hour. To convert hours to minutes, multiply by 60. Thus, 0.75 hour equals 0.75 x 60 = 45 minutes.

*Time T = D/GS*

To find the time (T) in flight, divide the distance (D) by the GS. The time to fly 210 NM at a GS of 140 knots is 210 ÷ 140, or 1.5 hours. (The 0.5 hour multiplied by 60 minutes equals 30 minutes.) Answer: 1:30.

*Distance D = GS X T*

To find the distance flown in a given time, multiply GS by time. The distance flown in 1 hour 45 minutes at a GS of 120 knots is 120 x 1.75, or 210 NM.

*GS GS = D/T*

To find the GS, divide the distance flown by the time required. If an aircraft flies 270 NM in 3 hours, the GS is 270 ÷ 3 = 90 knots.

**Converting Knots to Miles Per Hour**

Another conversion is that of changing knots to miles per hour (mph). The aviation industry is using knots more frequently than mph, but it might be well to discuss the conversion for those that use mph when working with speed problems. The NWS reports both surface winds and winds aloft in knots. However, airspeed indicators in some aircraft are calibrated in mph (although many are now calibrated in both miles per hour and knots). Pilots, therefore, should learn to convert wind speeds that are reported in knots to mph.

A knot is 1 nautical mile per hour (NMPH). Because there are 6,076.1 feet in 1 NM and 5,280 feet in 1 SM, the conversion factor is 1.15. To convert knots to miles per hour, multiply speed in knots by 1.15. For example: a wind speed of 20 knots is equivalent to 23 mph.

Most flight computers or electronic calculators have a means of making this conversion. Another quick method of conversion is to use the scales of NM and SM at the bottom of aeronautical charts.

**Fuel Consumption**

Aircraft fuel consumption is computed in gallons per hour. Consequently, to determine the fuel required for a given flight, the time required for the flight must be known. Time in flight multiplied by rate of consumption gives the quantity of fuel required. For example, a flight of 400 NM at a GS of 100 knots requires 4 hours. If an aircraft consumes 5 gallons an hour, the total consumption is 4 x 5, or 20 gallons.

The rate of fuel consumption depends on many factors: condition of the engine, propeller/rotor pitch, propeller/rotor revolutions per minute (rpm), richness of the mixture, and particularly the percentage of horsepower used for flight at cruising speed. The pilot should know the approximate consumption rate from cruise performance charts, or from experience. In addition to the amount of fuel required for the flight, there should be sufficient fuel for reserve.

**Flight Computers**

Up to this point, only mathematical formulas have been used to determine such items as time, distance, speed, and fuel consumption. In reality, most pilots use a mechanical or electronic flight computer. These devices can compute numerous problems associated with flight planning and navigation. The mechanical or electronic computer has an instruction book that probably includes sample problems so the pilot can become familiar with its functions and operation. [Figure 15-18]

**Plotter**

Another aid in flight planning is a plotter, which is a protractor and ruler. The pilot can use this when determining true course and measuring distance. Most plotters have a ruler which measures in both NM and SM and has a scale for a sectional chart on one side and a world aeronautical chart on the other. [Figure 15-18]

*Figure 15-18. A plotter (A), the computational and wind side of a mechanical flight computer (B), and an electronic flight computer (C).*

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