Every aircraft is tested according to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations prior to certification. The aircraft is tested by a pilot with average piloting skills in 90° crosswinds with a velocity up to 0.2 VSO or two-tenths of the aircraft’s stalling speed with power off, gear down, and flaps down. This means that if the stalling speed of the aircraft is 45 knots, it must be capable of landing in a 9-knot, 90° crosswind. The maximum demonstrated crosswind component is published in the AFM/POH. The crosswind and headwind component chart allows for figuring the headwind and crosswind component for any given wind direction and velocity.

**Sample Problem 10**

Runway………………………………………………………………..17

Wind………………………………………………..140° at 25 knots

Refer to Figure 10-30 to solve this problem. First, determine how many degrees difference there is between the runway and the wind direction. It is known that runway 17 means a direction of 170°; from that subtract the wind direction of 140°. This gives a 30° angular difference, or wind angle. Next, locate the 30° mark and draw a line from there until it intersects the correct wind velocity of 25 knots. From there, draw a line straight down and a line straight across. The headwind component is 22 knots and the crosswind component is 13 knots. This information is important when taking off and landing so that, first of all, the appropriate runway can be picked if more than one exists at a particular airport, but also so that the aircraft is not pushed beyond its tested limits.

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