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Pressure Altitude – Range Performance (Part Two)

by Flight Learnings

in Aircraft Performance

Cruise control of an aircraft implies that the aircraft is operated to maintain the recommended long-range cruise condition throughout the flight. Since fuel is consumed during cruise, the gross weight of the aircraft will vary and optimum airspeed, altitude, and power setting can also vary. Cruise control means the control of the optimum airspeed, altitude, and power setting to maintain the 99 percent maximum specific range condition. At the beginning of cruise flight, the relatively high initial weight of the aircraft will require specific values of airspeed, altitude, and power setting to produce the recommended cruise condition. As fuel is consumed and the aircraft’s gross weight decreases, the optimum airspeed and power setting may decrease, or, the optimum altitude may increase. In addition, the optimum specific range will increase. Therefore, the pilot must provide the proper cruise control procedure to ensure that optimum conditions are maintained.

Total range is dependent on both fuel available and specific range. When range and economy of operation are the principal goals, the pilot must ensure that the aircraft is operated at the recommended long-range cruise condition. By this procedure, the aircraft will be capable of its maximum design-operating radius, or can achieve flight distances less than the maximum with a maximum of fuel reserve at the destination.

A propeller-driven aircraft combines the propeller with the reciprocating engine for propulsive power. Fuel flow is determined mainly by the shaft power put into the propeller rather than thrust. Thus, the fuel flow can be related directly to the power required to maintain the aircraft in steady, level flight and on performance charts power can be substituted for fuel flow. This fact allows for the determination of range through analysis of power required versus speed.

The maximum endurance condition would be obtained at the point of minimum power required since this would require the lowest fuel flow to keep the airplane in steady, level flight. Maximum range condition would occur where the ratio of speed to power required is greatest. [Figure 10-10]

Figure 10-10. Airspeed for maximum endurance.

-Click to Enlarge- Figure 10-10. Airspeed for maximum endurance.

The maximum range condition is obtained at maximum lift/drag ratio (L/DMAX), and it is important to note that for a given aircraft configuration, the L/DMAX occurs at a particular AOA and lift coefficient, and is unaffected by weight or altitude. A variation in weight will alter the values of airspeed and power required to obtain the L/DMAX. [Figure 10-11]

Figure 10-11. Effect of weight.

Figure 10-11. Effect of weight.

The variations of speed and power required must be monitored by the pilot as part of the cruise control procedure to maintain the L/DMAX. When the aircraft’s fuel weight is a small part of the gross weight and the aircraft’s range is small, the cruise control procedure can be simplified to essentially maintaining a constant speed and power setting throughout the time of cruise flight. However, a long-range aircraft has a fuel weight that is a considerable part of the gross weight, and cruise control procedures must employ scheduled airspeed and power changes to maintain optimum range conditions.

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